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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gṓŕV
Meaning: to move, be irritated
Russian meaning: двигаться, быть возбужденным
Turkic: *Kōŕ-ga-
Mongolian: *gurba-
Tungus-Manchu: *gori-
Comments: A Western isogloss. The root is homonymous with *gōŕa 'to starve' (except that the final vowel is uncertain here), but it seems impossible to reduce the two roots to a single entity.
Proto-Altaic: *guči ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: eagle
Russian meaning: орел
Turkic: *güči-
Tungus-Manchu: *gusi
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gudV ( ~ -o-) (?)
Meaning: straight, vertical
Russian meaning: прямой, вертикальный
Mongolian: *goda-
Tungus-Manchu: *goda-
Korean: *kòt-
Comments: Lee 1958, 111, ТМС 1, 166 (Tung.-Kor.). Not a very reliable root. Note that the Manchu form may belong here only if it is separated from TM *gugda 'high, tall' (see under *gók`ì), which is not necessarily so. The reflex -t- in Kor. points rather to *-t`- (unless one presumes secondary morphonological analogies). One wonders if all the forms present here do not actually represent reflexes of *gok`-dV, the suffixed form of PA *gók`i.
Proto-Altaic: *gŭjŕe
Meaning: to love, like
Russian meaning: любить
Turkic: *güŕel
Mongolian: *goju
Tungus-Manchu: *guǯej
Korean: *kò'í-
Japanese: *kuà-p-
Comments: Дыбо 12, Martin 236. The root contains a rare medial cluster *-jŕ-.
Proto-Altaic: *gŭ̀k`à ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: curve, hook; to cling to
Russian meaning: изгиб, крюк; цепляться
Mongolian: *gok-
Tungus-Manchu: *guk-
Japanese: *kàk-
Comments: Cf. *gék`á, *k`i̯úŋu, *k`ōki.
Proto-Altaic: *guna
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rob, attack, torture
Russian meaning: грабить, нападать, мучить
Turkic: *Kun-
Mongolian: *gani
Tungus-Manchu: *gun-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. *k`i̯ūńa.
Proto-Altaic: *gúpu ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: empty, hollow
Russian meaning: пустой, полый
Mongolian: *gobi-
Tungus-Manchu: *gub-
Japanese: *kùp-
Comments: An expressive root; not quite reliable because of scanty reflexation in TM and possible contaminations with *gĕbo et al. On a possible reflex in Turk. see under *kŏ́bú.
Proto-Altaic: *gure
Meaning: flour
Russian meaning: мука
Turkic: *Kürüĺ
Mongolian: *guril
Korean: *kằrằ
Japanese: *kuà
Comments: Martin 248. In Kor. the word seems to be related to kằr- 'to grind, pulverize' - but this meaning is probably secondary (the verb originally means 'to polish, whet'). The tone discrepancy between Kor. and Jpn. should be explained either by the secondary influence of this verbal stem in Korean, or by contraction in Japanese (where *kuà < *gur(e)-ga); the first explanation seems more probable because the vowel reflex in Korean is also not quite regular (*-o- would be normally expected).
Proto-Altaic: *gurgi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: palate
Russian meaning: нёбо
Turkic: *Kurgak
Mongolian: *güreɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *gorgakta
Comments: A Western isogloss. See Лексика 230.
Proto-Altaic: *gŭri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wide, broad, thick
Russian meaning: широкий, толстый
Turkic: *gür
Mongolian: *gür
Tungus-Manchu: *gora
Korean: *kūrk-
Comments: Despite Poppe (1960,18 etc.) the TM form cannot be compared with Mong. qola 'far'.
Proto-Altaic: *gŭ̀ŕi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to unfasten, (un)tie
Russian meaning: вязать, развязывать, завязывать
Turkic: *güŕ-
Mongolian: *görü- / *gürü-
Tungus-Manchu: *gurē-
Korean: *kɨ̀rɨ̀-
Japanese: *kùr-
Comments: Poppe 25, 107, Miller 1996, 154, Tekin 1979, 127. Korean has standard verbal low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *gùri
Meaning: to slander, go mad
Russian meaning: клеветать, сходить с ума
Turkic: *Kür
Mongolian: *gör-
Tungus-Manchu: *gori-
Korean: *kɨ̀rɨ̀-
Japanese: *kùrùp-
Comments: Martin 246. Korean has a usual verbal low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *gúri ( ~ -o-, -ŕ-, -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: deer, game
Russian meaning: олень, дичь
Mongolian: *görüɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *gurma- / *gurna-
Korean: *kòrání
Comments: PTM and Korean reflect a common derivative *gúri-nV-. Note that Mong. *gura 'roebuck' is to be kept apart, see *ŋurV.
Proto-Altaic: *gusa ( ~ -o-, -č-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: elder male relative
Russian meaning: старший родственник мужского пола
Tungus-Manchu: *gusin
Japanese: *kasǝ
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *guša
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bitter, sour
Russian meaning: горький, кислый
Mongolian: *gasi-ɣun
Tungus-Manchu: *goši-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. АПиПЯЯ 17, Мудрак Дисс. 41, Rozycki 92. ? Cf. OJpn. kasu 'dregs'.
Proto-Altaic: *gū́ldi
Meaning: to tether, bind
Russian meaning: привязывать
Turkic: *gǖl-
Mongolian: *güldi-
Tungus-Manchu: *gulde-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. *kōli, *k`i̯ŭli, *k`ìĺa.
Proto-Altaic: *gū̀lì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dwelling, cottage
Russian meaning: жилище, хижина
Turkic: *gül
Tungus-Manchu: *gūle
Japanese: *kùrà
Comments: EAS 48.
Proto-Altaic: *gū̀no
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to think
Russian meaning: думать
Turkic: *Kun-
Mongolian: *guni-
Tungus-Manchu: *gūn-
Korean: *kɨ̀nɨ̀r-
Japanese: *kǝ̀nǝ̀-m-
Comments: Poppe 24, KW 155, ОСНЯ 1, 234, АПиПЯЯ 291. "Verbal" low tone in Korean. There are several "mental" verbs of the type KUNV in Altaic, and they are not always easy to distinguish from each other. Besides *gū̀no 'think' cf. also notes to *kḕńu 'distress, envy', *k`i̯ŭnu 'to long, covet', *k`i̯ū́ńa 'punishment' (the latter - with additional analogies with *guna 'attack, torture'). On the whole this produces an extremely complicated etymological situation, and we are not sure we have disentangled everything correctly.
Proto-Altaic: *gū́t`ù
Meaning: to deteriorate
Russian meaning: ухудшаться
Turkic: *Kūtuŕ
Mongolian: *gutu-
Tungus-Manchu: *gutu-
Japanese: *kutu-
Comments: Ozawa 209-210, KW 156. The original meaning may be reconstructed as 'deteriorate', with two directions of semantic development ( > a) 'to become mad, enraged'; > b) 'to become spoiled, rot').
Proto-Altaic: *i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a deictic root
Russian meaning: дейктическая основа
Turkic: *ɨ-na-
Mongolian: *i-nu-
Tungus-Manchu: *i
Korean: *í
Japanese: *i
Comments: SKE 66, ОСНЯ 1, 271-272, АПиПЯЯ 56-57, 297.
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