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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gī́ŕa ( ~-o,-u)
Meaning: girl, mate
Russian meaning: девушка, спутница
Turkic: *Kɨ̄ŕ
Tungus-Manchu: *girkī
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss. Cf. perhaps Mong. *gergei 'wife' (if not derived from *ger 'house'; Mong. pl. gergen > Yak., Dolg. kergen 'family', see Kaɫ. MEJ 28, Stachowski 145).
Proto-Altaic: *gŏ̀bè ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to search, hunt
Russian meaning: искать, охотиться
Turkic: *Kob-
Mongolian: *guji-
Tungus-Manchu: *gob-
Japanese: *kǝ̀p-
Comments: KW 156, Владимирцов 160, 272, Poppe 24, 49, Ozawa 202-203, Miller 1985, 145, АПиПЯЯ 81.
Proto-Altaic: *goblu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: valley
Russian meaning: долина
Turkic: *Kōl
Mongolian: *gowl
Tungus-Manchu: *gola
Korean: *kōr
Japanese: *kura
Comments: EAS 48, KW 150, SKE 121, Martin 245, Whitman 1985, 191, 222, Martin 1996, 39, АПиПЯЯ 19, 70. Mong. cannot be borrowed from Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 139.; the isolated Manchu form may be < Mong. (see TMN 1, 439, Doerfer MT 116, Rozycki 91), but not necessarily so.
Proto-Altaic: *gòbù ( ~ -u-)
Meaning: beautiful
Russian meaning: красивый
Turkic: {*Kob-}
Mongolian: *gowa
Korean: *kōb-
Japanese: *kùpà-
Comments: EAS 90, SKE 124 (despite Doerfer's - TMN 1, 422 - doubts, the comparison seems impeccable), Miller 1985, 144-145, АПиПЯЯ 15, 68, Ozawa 18.
Proto-Altaic: *gòdè
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be diligent, persistent, to endure
Russian meaning: быть терпеливым, настойчивым, терпеть
Turkic: *Kodur-
Mongolian: *güǯi-
Japanese: *kǝ̀tàpa-
Comments: Cf. *ki̯ū́di, *kít`u.
Proto-Altaic: *gódú
Meaning: down, to lower
Russian meaning: низ, опускать
Turkic: *Kodɨ
Mongolian: *gudu-
Japanese: *kúntá-r-
Comments: KW 153, Владимирцов 160, 319.
Proto-Altaic: *gojV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: different, other
Russian meaning: другой, отличный
Mongolian: *gojar
Tungus-Manchu: *goj / *gia
Japanese: *kía
Comments: The Jpn. form reflects a contraction *kía < *kV́ja, frequent in roots with medial *-j-.
Proto-Altaic: *gokV
Meaning: a k. of reed or leek
Russian meaning: вид тростника или дикого лука
Turkic: *Koga ( ~ -k-)
Mongolian: *gogu-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss: not quite reliable because of late attestation, but borrowing in either direction seems improbable. Cf. *gi̯aŋu, *ki̯omga, *k`éma.
Proto-Altaic: *gók`ì (*-dV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: high, peak
Russian meaning: высокий, вершина
Mongolian: *gögde-
Tungus-Manchu: *gugda
Korean: *kòkái
Japanese: *kúkì
Comments: Poppe 19, 51, АПиПЯЯ 288, 295. The Mong. and TM forms reflect a derivative in *-dV (probably originally locative). See also a discussion under *gudV.
Proto-Altaic: *goli ( ̃ -e)
Meaning: female of an ungulate
Russian meaning: самка копытного животного
Turkic: *göle
Tungus-Manchu: *gulu-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss; cf. perhaps also MMong. gölme, WMong. gölme, Ord. gülme 'skin of ox or swine, saddle cloth'.
Proto-Altaic: *gòlí
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of weapon for sea-hunting
Russian meaning: вид орудия для морской охоты
Mongolian: *gölmi
Tungus-Manchu: *goli
Japanese: *kùrúrí
Comments: A common Altaic cultural term.
Proto-Altaic: *goli
Meaning: log, wooden block
Russian meaning: бревно, чурбан
Turkic: *göl-
Mongolian: *göle- ( ~ -ü-)
Tungus-Manchu: *gola
Japanese: *kura-i
Comments: The word is rather scantily represented in Turkic and Mongolian, but borrowing is rather improbable.
Proto-Altaic: *goŋV(ŕV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of insect
Russian meaning: вид насекомого
Turkic: *Koŋuŕ
Mongolian: *guwur
Tungus-Manchu: *guŋgu
Korean: *kūm(p)-
Comments: KW 157, Дыбо 8, Лексика 188 (Doerfer TMN 3, 527 regards the Turk.-Mong. match as "aus lautlichen Gründen mindestens unwahrscheinlich"), although phonetically the match is quite plausible. The Kor. form is not quite clear morphologically (kūmp(j)ǝŋ(i) < *kūŋ-p(j)ǝŋ, a compound with some unclear second component?), but semantically matches the other forms very well.
Proto-Altaic: *góp`á ( ~ -u-)
Meaning: stump
Russian meaning: пень
Mongolian: *gobur
Japanese: *kámpú
Comments: A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *górà ( ~ -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to starve, be empty
Russian meaning: голодать, быть пустым
Mongolian: *guri-
Tungus-Manchu: *gure-
Korean: *kòrh-
Japanese: *kárà
Comments: Martin 231 (Kor.-Jpn.)
Proto-Altaic: *gŏ̀re
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to see; understand
Russian meaning: видеть; понимать, узнавать
Turkic: *göŕ ( = *gör-s) / *gör-
Mongolian: *gori
Tungus-Manchu: *gur-
Korean: *kɨ́rì-
Comments: PKE 85, АПиПЯЯ 281, Дыбо 14. ? Cf. Mong. girkaj 'having good eyesight'.
Proto-Altaic: *got`ò ( ~ -u-, -e)
Meaning: a k. of fish
Russian meaning: вид рыбы
Mongolian: *gutaɣar
Tungus-Manchu: *gutkē-
Japanese: *kǝti ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: It is not quite clear whether Mong. and TM reflect a common derivative *got`ò-gV (with assimilation -g- > -k- in TM) or these are independent derivations.
Proto-Altaic: *gṑje
Meaning: a k. of ferment
Russian meaning: вид квасящего вещества
Turkic: *göjü-
Tungus-Manchu: *gū ( ~ *gǖ)
Korean: *kɨ̄i-
Japanese: *ki
Comments: Jpn. *ki must be a result of early secondary contraction (*kǝj- > *ki).
Proto-Altaic: *gṓli ( ~ -e)
Meaning: to bury, put bones
Russian meaning: хоронить, класть кости
Turkic: *gȫli-
Tungus-Manchu: *gulī-
Comments: An interesting Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gṓp`i ( ~ -e)
Meaning: to beat, hit
Russian meaning: бить, ударять
Turkic: *gȫp-
Mongolian: *göbi-
Tungus-Manchu: *gupuj-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. *gi̯ube.
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