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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *gibe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mare
Russian meaning: кобыла
Turkic: *KEbel
Mongolian: *gewü-n
Tungus-Manchu: *gibu-
Comments: A Western isogloss. The isolated Karakh. form may be borrowed < Sak. käbä 'well-bred horse'; perhaps a better match in Turkic would be *Kojn 'sheep' (Лексика 431, ЭСТЯ 6, 24-26) ( > Mong. qoni(n) > Evk. konin etc., see TMN 3, 564, Щербак 1997, 139, Doerfer MT 37; despite KW 194 and Poppe 70, hardly a common Altaic *koni). In that case Turk. *Kojn < *Kobi-n, with a subsequent reconstruction of PA *gi̯abo(nV).
Proto-Altaic: *gijo
Meaning: notch, to cut aslant
Russian meaning: зарубка, резать наискосок
Turkic: *Kɨj-
Tungus-Manchu: *gia-
Japanese: *ki
Comments: Kalm. kāčǝ- (WMong. kijači-, KW 222) 'to split (wood)' is probably borrowed from the Turk. derivative *Kɨjgač- (although the latter now means basically 'slant', the original meaning was 'cut aslant'). If the latter was the original meaning in PA, one could also compare Mong. *geji-, *geje- 'slanting, oblique' (otherwise see notes to *k`i̯úŋ(k)u).
Proto-Altaic: *gìlè ( ~ -i, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to shine, glitter
Russian meaning: блестеть, сверкать
Mongolian: *gil(b)a-
Tungus-Manchu: *gilta-
Japanese: *kìrà-
Comments: KW 136, ОСНЯ 1, 230. In TM cf. also a variant *kilbe- / *kilt- 'glitter' (ТМС 1, 393, 394; hence Yak. kilbej-, kɨlbaj-; but Dolg. gilbej-, gɨlbaj- may be directly < Mong.; see Kaɫ. MEJ 103, Stachowski 86, 87). Since Mong. also has a variant *gilt- (MMong. (MA) qiltai-, WMong. giltagir, giltuji-, Kalm. giltǝgṛ, giltī-, KW ibid.), the TM forms may be borrowed from Mong. (see Doerfer MT 21-22, Rozycki 89). Note that Jpn. *kìrà- may also reflect PA *gari q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *gĭ̀ĺò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cold
Russian meaning: холодный
Turkic: *Kɨĺ
Tungus-Manchu: *gil-
Japanese: *kìsàra-(n)ki
Comments: EAS 110, Лексика 76, Miller 1986, 47, Miller 1996, 114.
Proto-Altaic: *gilu ( ~ -o, -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: curved object
Russian meaning: искривленный предмет
Turkic: *Kɨlɨ
Mongolian: *gil-
Tungus-Manchu: *gil-
Comments: A Western isogloss; cf. *gi̯ā́ĺu.
Proto-Altaic: *gíme ( ~ *gemi)
Meaning: defect
Russian meaning: дефект, недостаток
Turkic: *Kem
Mongolian: *gem
Korean: *kìmɨ́i
Comments: KW 133. Cf. Evk. gimdigī- 'to break (of a belt, strap)' (ТМС 1, 152).
Proto-Altaic: *gire ( ~ -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bone
Russian meaning: кость
Mongolian: *gere
Tungus-Manchu: *giram-ksa
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *giru
Meaning: shore; road
Russian meaning: берег; дорога
Turkic: *Kɨrgak
Tungus-Manchu: *giri
Korean: *kírh
Comments: SKE 112, АПиПЯЯ 296. In Turkic the root is contaminating with the reflex of *k`ā̀re q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ằlá
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: goose, duck
Russian meaning: гусь, утка
Mongolian: *galaɣu(n)
Tungus-Manchu: *gileŋē-
Japanese: *kàrí
Comments: In TM one would rather expect *gialeŋē, but the existing forms may be explained as secondarily monophthongized. Despite АПиПЯЯ 80, the Jpn. form rather belongs here (semantically it is exactly = Mong. ɣalaɣun, and in case *kàrí < *gāŕV we would rather expect *kàtí).
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ălu
Meaning: thick, whole
Russian meaning: толстый, целый
Turkic: *Kalɨŋ
Mongolian: *goli-
Tungus-Manchu: *gulu-kun
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯aŋu
Meaning: wild onion
Russian meaning: дикий лук
Turkic: *gEmürgen
Tungus-Manchu: *guŋur
Japanese: *k(u)i
Comments: Cf. also some similar roots: *gokV, *ki̯omga, *k`éma (with possible mergers). Medial -m- in Turk. may be either due to these mergers, or a result of labial assimilation (*gEmürgen < *gEŋürgen). The Jpn. form must go back to a suffixed *gi̯aŋ(u)-gV.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ằŕá
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to walk, step
Russian meaning: ходить, шагать
Turkic: *gEŕ-
Mongolian: *gar-
Tungus-Manchu: *giari- / *gira-
Japanese: *kàtí
Comments: ЭСТЯ 3, 11, JOAL 125, 126, АПиПЯЯ 74, 289, Дыбо 13.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ări
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to stretch, spread
Russian meaning: расстилать, растягивать
Turkic: *ger-
Tungus-Manchu: *girke-
Korean: *kǝ̄r-
Comments: The match is possible if TM *girke- is a secondary contraction < *giarke-. Another possibility would be to suppose *girke- < *gerki- and reconstruct PA *gĕrV.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ắru
Meaning: acacia
Russian meaning: акация
Turkic: *KArakan
Tungus-Manchu: *gur-
Korean: *kor-
Japanese: *kútí-
Comments: The meaning 'acacia' is surprisingly well reconstructable for this root.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯àru
Meaning: wave, stream
Russian meaning: волна, поток
Mongolian: *goru-ka / *gori-ka
Tungus-Manchu: *guru-
Korean: *kjǝ́r
Comments: Mong. and TM reflect a common derivative *gi̯àru-k`V.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯aso
Meaning: to curse, horrify
Russian meaning: ругать, устрашать
Turkic: *Kias-
Mongolian: *ges-
Tungus-Manchu: *gos-
Japanese: *kasi-
Comments: Cf. *kasa.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ā́la
Meaning: to stay behind, be separated
Russian meaning: оставаться, отставать, отделяться
Turkic: *Kiāl-
Mongolian: *gal-
Tungus-Manchu: *giala-
Japanese: *kára-
Comments: The original meaning is well reconstructable as "to lag behind > become separated". The derivative *gi̯ā́la-kV 'separation, lagging' is reflected in PTM *giala-ku 'separated space, room' and the denominative *gal-gi- in Mongolian.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ā́ĺu
Meaning: ring, bracelet, precious stone
Russian meaning: кольцо, браслет, драгоценный камень
Turkic: *KĀĺ
Tungus-Manchu: *goldi
Korean: *kòrhói
Japanese: *kusirǝ
Comments: A specific common Altaic cultural term.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯óč`e
Meaning: a k. of flower
Russian meaning: вид цветка
Turkic: *gEč-
Mongolian: *gečigene
Korean: *kòč
Comments: Very scantily represented in Turkic, so basically a Mong.-Kor. isogloss; not quite reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯odV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: belly, stomach
Russian meaning: живот, желудок
Mongolian: *gede-sün
Tungus-Manchu: *gudige
Comments: ТМС 1, 167. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
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