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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gā́t`ì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to go, come
Russian meaning: идти, приходить
Turkic: *gē(j)t-
Mongolian: *getül- / *gatul-
Japanese: *kítá-r-
Comments: Because of the peculiar shape of the Turkic form one should perhaps reconstruct *gā́jt`i.
Proto-Altaic: *gébó
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shell, husk
Russian meaning: скорлупа, шелуха; мякина
Turkic: *Kạb-
Mongolian: *gawr-su
Tungus-Manchu: *gub- ( ~ *geb-)
Korean: *kòbɨ̀i
Japanese: *kámpí
Comments: Владимирцов 209, Poppe 48, АПиПЯЯ 14, 280. One of several similar PA roots (see *k`ā́p`a, *k`èpà, *k`i̯ā̀bu, *kìp`é).
Proto-Altaic: *gĕbo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: light, empty
Russian meaning: легкий, пустой
Turkic: *geb-
Mongolian: *güji-
Tungus-Manchu: *gebu-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. *kup`e, *gúpu.
Proto-Altaic: *gĕ́dì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: back (of head), behind
Russian meaning: затылок, позади
Turkic: *ged
Mongolian: *gede
Tungus-Manchu: *gedi-muk
Japanese: *kítà
Comments: EAS 48, Владимирцов 206, Poppe 24, 53, Колесникова 1972а, 101-103, ОСНЯ 1, 228, АПиПЯЯ 71; Дыбо 4. Despite Doerfer's criticism (TMN 1, 492) the root still holds.
Proto-Altaic: *gĕ́gà ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to be angry
Russian meaning: сердиться
Turkic: *KAkɨ-
Mongolian: *gaɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *geg-
Japanese: *kákúat-
Comments: The PT form has an irregular *-k-, most probably under the influence of the synonymous PA root *kā́k`i ( > PT *Kek-).
Proto-Altaic: *gék`á
Meaning: hook, bend
Russian meaning: крюк, гнуть
Turkic: *Kek- / *Kak-
Mongolian: *gek-
Tungus-Manchu: *gek(u)-
Japanese: *kánkám-
Comments: Cf. *gŭ̀k`a, *k`i̯úŋu, *k`ōkí.
Proto-Altaic: *gĕ̀la
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to search, hunt
Russian meaning: искать, охотиться
Turkic: *gele-
Tungus-Manchu: *gelē-
Japanese: *kàr-
Comments: Дыбо 14, Федотов 1, 270-271.
Proto-Altaic: *gĕ̀le
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to come; to go
Russian meaning: приходить; идти
Turkic: *gẹl-
Mongolian: *gel-
Tungus-Manchu: *gel-
Korean: *ká-
Japanese: *kǝ̀-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 99, 274. The verb loses the final resonant in Jpn., Kor. and in some forms of the Turkic paradigm: this must be an archaic feature (also present in some other frequently used verbs), speaking perhaps in favour of the root's original monosyllabic structure (*gèl).
Proto-Altaic: *gèmo
Meaning: to complete, fill in
Russian meaning: завершать, заполнять
Mongolian: *gömür-
Tungus-Manchu: *gemu
Korean: *kăm-
Japanese: *kǝ̀m-
Comments: Cf. also notes to *k`ŏ́mi.
Proto-Altaic: *gèná
Meaning: to suppose; unexpected
Russian meaning: предполагать; неожиданный
Turkic: *gEne
Mongolian: *gene-
Japanese: *kàná-
Comments: The original meaning may be reconstructed as 'to be unexpected' / 'not expect smth.'.
Proto-Altaic: *gentV ( ~ k-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: male, self
Russian meaning: самец, сам
Turkic: *[g]ẹntü (-nd-)
Mongolian: *gendü
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Poppe 25, KW 133, ОСНЯ 1, 226-227 (despite Doerfer's criticism in TMN 1, 489 the forms are perfectly semantically compatible).
Proto-Altaic: *gep`V
Meaning: to disappear, obscure
Russian meaning: исчезать, тусклый
Mongolian: *geɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *gepe-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. Cf. *gi̯ū̀p`a.
Proto-Altaic: *gera ( ~ -o, -u)
Meaning: many
Russian meaning: много
Mongolian: *garu-
Tungus-Manchu: *gere-n
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gĕ̀rè(bV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: word, name, witness
Russian meaning: слово, имя, свидетельство
Turkic: *gẹr-tü
Mongolian: *gere(-ɣe)
Tungus-Manchu: *gerbǖ
Korean: *kɨ́r, *kɨ́rwǝ́r
Japanese: *kǝ̀tǝ̀, *kǝ̀tǝ̀-pà
Comments: KW 134, Poppe 25, 80 (Turk.-Mong.). Cf. also Old Koguryo *kŭš (Lee reads *kɨl, Miller 1979 emends to *kŭnš, which is hardly correct).
Proto-Altaic: *gérki
Meaning: a k. of pheasant
Russian meaning: вид фазана
Turkic: *Kerke-
Mongolian: *girgawl, *k-
Japanese: *kínkisí
Comments: Cf. various similar bird names in TM: Evk. goriwkī 'swallow' (ТМС 1, 161); Orok kiru, kireu 'crane' (ТМС 1, 399); Oroch kurau, koro; Evk. karaw, karawul 'gray crane' (ТМС 1, 379).
Proto-Altaic: *gĕrV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: house, house poles
Russian meaning: дом, жерди в каркасе дома
Turkic: *gErekü
Mongolian: *ger
Tungus-Manchu: *gerbe-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *get`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to watch, look
Russian meaning: наблюдать, смотреть
Mongolian: *gete-
Tungus-Manchu: *gete-
Comments: KW 135. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss; despite TMN 1, 489, Doerfer MT 79, hardly a borrowing in TM < Mong. (because of semantic differences).
Proto-Altaic: *gḕĺa
Meaning: to screen (from light), disappear
Russian meaning: закрывать (от света), исчезать
Turkic: *Köĺ-
Tungus-Manchu: *gēl-
Korean: *kɨ̀rɨ̀mǝ́i
Japanese: *kàsùm-
Comments: In Turkic *Keĺ- would be expected; -ö- is probably due to the influence of a very close phonetically and semantically Karakh. kölige 'shadow'. In Korean one would expect rather *kǝ́rVm-, so the tone and vocalism appears to be distorted. This all may be due to expressive (tabooistic) reasons, as well as to the interaction between this root and PA *k`òlmV 'cloud' q. v. {Cf. WMo ɣoluj-, ɣolu-ɣur 'потухший, тусклый, неяркий' - perhaps better for Turkic.}
Proto-Altaic: *gḗmo
Meaning: stern, boat
Russian meaning: корма, лодка
Turkic: *gẹ̄mi
Tungus-Manchu: *gemu ?
Korean: *kòmắr
Comments: One of the common Altaic navigation terms.
Proto-Altaic: *gḕnŋa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bend
Russian meaning: гнуть
Turkic: *KAŋɨr-
Mongolian: *gana-
Tungus-Manchu: *gē(n)ŋe-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
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