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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *ga
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to take; to put
Russian meaning: брать; класть
Turkic: *Ko-
Tungus-Manchu: *ga-
Korean: *kà-
Comments: SKE 83, Lee 1958, 111, МССНЯ 356, ОСНЯ 1, 225. One of the few PA monosyllabic roots. The relation of the Turk. form is somewhat dubious (for semantic and phonetic reasons). One may conjecture that the original shape was PT *Ka- - actually attested in OT, see EDT 578 - which was early substituted by *Ko- under the influence of the more widespread *Kod- and then disappeared altogether.
Proto-Altaic: *gàč`i ( ~ *gèč`a)
Meaning: branch, bough
Russian meaning: ветка, сук
Mongolian: *gač-
Korean: *káčí
Comments: A Mong.-Kor. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gằgtà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: one of a pair
Russian meaning: один из пары
Turkic: *Kat
Mongolian: *gagča
Tungus-Manchu: *gagda
Japanese: *kàtà
Comments: Rozycki 85 (TM-Mong.). Despite Doerfer MT 51, TM cannot be borrowed from Mong. The Mong. form presents some difficulties: apart from the unclear variant *ganča, the form *gagča itself can only belong here if it is an irregular development < *gagči < *gagti, or if it is a contraction of a derived form *gagta-ča. Note that Jpn. *kàtà may also be derived from PA *kalt`o q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *gằjá
Meaning: oar, boat pole
Russian meaning: весло, лодочный шест
Turkic: *K(i)aj-guk
Tungus-Manchu: *ga(j)-
Japanese: *kàjí
Comments: Murayama 1962, 107. An interesting common Altaic cultural term.
Proto-Altaic: *gằju
Meaning: sorrow
Russian meaning: печаль
Turkic: *Kadgu
Mongolian: *gaj
Tungus-Manchu: *gaja-
Korean: *kǝi'ǝm
Japanese: *kùjà-
Comments: Мудрак Дисс. 102. Cf. also Kalm. gejǖn, WMong. gejeɣün 'grievous, gloomy' (perhaps < *gaju-gi- with secondary fronting). Note the peculiar *-d- in PT, reflected as -j- (not -r-) in Chuv.: perhaps we should rather reconstruct *Kaj(i)-dgu for early PT, with subsequent development either > *Kajgu or > *Kadgu.
Proto-Altaic: *gajV
Meaning: surprise
Russian meaning: удивление, удивлять(ся)
Turkic: *Kaj-
Mongolian: *gajika-
Tungus-Manchu: *gaji-
Comments: A Western isogloss; maybe the same root as *gằju ('sorrow' > 'surprise'?).
Proto-Altaic: *gắli
Meaning: to hate, wild
Russian meaning: ненавидеть, дикий
Turkic: *K(i)al
Mongolian: *galǯaɣu
Tungus-Manchu: *galu-
Japanese: *kíráp-
Comments: Mong. gelme- 'to be scared, afraid' is probably a variant reflex of the same root - despite KW 133, Poppe 25, АПиПЯЯ 18, Дыбо 14, all connecting it with TM *ŋēle-.
Proto-Altaic: *gaĺi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to contest
Russian meaning: соревноваться
Tungus-Manchu: *gali-
Korean: *kjǝru-
Japanese: *kisuap- ( ~ *kisǝp-)
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gălV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: clear (of sky, weather)
Russian meaning: проясняться (о небе, погоде)
Turkic: *K(i)alɨ-
Tungus-Manchu: *galu-
Comments: VEWT 226, ТМС 1, 138. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gămo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: concubine, co-wife
Russian meaning: наложница, со-жена
Turkic: *Koma
Tungus-Manchu: *gama
Korean: *kòmá
Comments: Ramstedt (SKE 415) thinks of a loan Kor. > Turk., which is highly improbable (see TMN 1, 415); despite late attestation in Turkic the root may well be archaic. For TM one should suppose the original meaning "children of smb.'s concubine(s)".
Proto-Altaic: *găŋi ( ~ -i̯a-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to explain, tell, say
Russian meaning: объяснять, говорить
Turkic: *geŋe-
Mongolian: *geɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *g(i)aŋna-
Comments: Владимирцов 250, АПиПЯЯ 295, KW 132 (Turk.-Mong.). A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gàp`á
Meaning: protection, care
Russian meaning: защита, забота
Mongolian: *gabi-
Japanese: *kàmpà-
Comments: A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss. It is interesting to note the Old Turkic title qapaɣan which may be = OJ kabane and Mong. gabija(n).
Proto-Altaic: *gằŕ[à]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sharp edge
Russian meaning: острый край, конец
Turkic: *geŕ
Tungus-Manchu: *gara
Korean: *kárh
Japanese: *kàtànà
Comments: Martin 251 (Kor.-Jpn.), Lee 1958, 111 (Kor.-TM). Fronting in Turk. is unclear (*Kaŕ would be normally expected). The Kor. word may also reflect *kằle q. v. (Joki 1963, 154); in any case, it actually reflects a suffixed form *gàŕ[a]-KV (cf. Man. GarGa) or *kale-kV.
Proto-Altaic: *gàrá ( ~ -e-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: arm
Russian meaning: рука, верхняя часть руки
Turkic: *Karɨ
Mongolian: *gar
Japanese: *kàtá
Comments: KW 145, Владимирцов 391, Poppe 24 (Turk.-Mong.; but ТМ *ŋāla 'hand, arm' cannot belong here), Колесникова 1972а, 95-97; АПиПЯЯ 290, Дыбо 310-311, Лексика 247. Borrowing in Mong. < Turk. is quite improbable, despite Щербак 1997, 134 (even Doerfer in TMN 1, 207, 3, 461 describes the Turk.-Mong. match as "Zufall" - which in all his works is actually a synonym for "cognate").
Proto-Altaic: *gari ( ~ -ŕ-, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: light
Russian meaning: свет
Mongolian: *gere-l
Tungus-Manchu: *garpa
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss; on a possible Jpn. match see under *gìle. See also notes to *ŋḕra.
Proto-Altaic: *gaso ( ~ -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: crane, aquatic bird
Russian meaning: журавль, водоплавающая птица
Mongolian: *geske
Tungus-Manchu: *gasa
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. On a possible reflex in PT see under *gā̀ŕV; if PT *Kāŕ at least partially reflects the present root, it would be an argument to reconstruct PA *gāso with a long *ā. One should also note Kor. dial. kesani 'goose' (KED 109) - if it is not a derivative of PK *kǝ̀jú 'goose' (see under *kúja).
Proto-Altaic: *găte
Meaning: strong, very
Russian meaning: сильно, очень
Turkic: *ged
Mongolian: *küdür
Tungus-Manchu: *gata- / *kada-
Japanese: *kǝtǝ
Comments: The root reveals some phonetic irregularities - probably because of contaminations with *két`o 'much, many' and *kádì(rV) 'strong, tough' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *gàtù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fur on animal's paws
Russian meaning: мех на лапах животных
Mongolian: *godu / *gudu-, *gutu-
Tungus-Manchu: *gata-
Japanese: *kùtù
Comments: KW 152, SKE 128, Poppe 24, Ozawa 89-90, Miller 1986a, 55. The development 'fur on paws' > 'shoe' in Mong. and Jpn. may well have been independent, but one has also to reckon with a possibility of ancient borrowings (especially because of some phonetic irregularities in Mong.).
Proto-Altaic: *gằt`a ( ~ -t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: berry, to gather berries
Russian meaning: ягода, собирать ягоды
Turkic: *Kat-
Tungus-Manchu: *gata-
Korean: *kǝ̀t-
Japanese: *kàtai
Comments: Дыбо 10. Verbal low tone in Kor.
Proto-Altaic: *gā̀ŕV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wild goose
Russian meaning: дикий гусь
Turkic: *Kāŕ
Tungus-Manchu: *gār(u)a
Comments: EAS 113, Poppe 18, Цинциус 1972, 6, АПиПЯЯ 80, Лексика 171, TMN 3, 387 ("onomatopoetisch"). The Turk. form is probably contaminated with *Kās == TM *gasa 'crane, duck', which should explain the exceptional preservation of vowel length. See also comments to *ki̯ujilV and *gi̯ằla.
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