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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *ēč`o
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: be weak, exhausted
Russian meaning: быть слабым, истощенным
Turkic: *ạ̄č
Tungus-Manchu: *eče-
Korean: *ǝ́č-
Japanese: *ǝ̀tǝ̀r-
Comments: The parallel seems reliable despite tone discrepancy between Turk.-Tung., on the one hand, and Kor.-Jpn., on the other.
Proto-Altaic: *ēda
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: silly, evil
Russian meaning: глупый, дурной
Turkic: *Ada
Mongolian: *ada
Tungus-Manchu: *ēde-
Japanese: *ántá
Comments: Mong. may be < Turk., see EDT 40, Щербак 1997, 94. The Jpn. high tone seems to contradict the TM length, but it may be secondary, see above.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗga
Meaning: to rise, lift
Russian meaning: подниматъ, подниматься
Turkic: *(i)āg-
Mongolian: *(h)ag-sa-
Tungus-Manchu: *ek-se-
Japanese: *á(n)ká-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 275; Miller 1981, 869. Cf. *i̯ā́ga.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗgó
Meaning: big, many
Russian meaning: большой, много
Turkic: *ẹ̄g-id-
Mongolian: *aɣu-
Tungus-Manchu: *egdi
Korean: *ǝ̀'uí-
Japanese: *ǝnki-rǝ
Comments: EAS 73, VEWT 169, SKE 62, 59, АПиПЯЯ 291. Korean has ǝ- instead of the expected *ă, because the latter cannot stand in Anlaut. A derivative of the same root may be MKor. ón 'hundred' ( < *ēgo-nV). {Cf. PE *uɣla- 'numerous, many'.}
Proto-Altaic: *ḗjba
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hurry
Russian meaning: спешить
Turkic: *ēb-
Mongolian: *(h)abad
Tungus-Manchu: *ebV-
Japanese: *áwá-tá-
Comments: Ozawa 8, Дыбо 12. Medial *-j- has to be reconstructed to account for lack of spirantization in Mong. and for -w- (not -p-) in Jpn. Note a similar dental suffixation in Mong. and Jpn.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗĺpo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cover
Russian meaning: покрывать
Turkic: *ēĺü-
Mongolian: *(h)olbug
Tungus-Manchu: *elbe-, *eldu-
Japanese: *ǝ́sǝ́p-
Comments: PKE 46-47, Street 1980, 287, Дыбо 15, Лексика 512. Mong. *(h)olbug < *(h)albug, with a frequent labial attraction.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗĺV
Meaning: to scratch, rake, row
Russian meaning: скрести, загребать, грести
Turkic: *ēĺ-
Mongolian: *ele-
Tungus-Manchu: *elbe-s-
Comments: A Western isogloss. See KW 119, Poppe 78, 126, VEWT 51 (Turk.-Mong.), АПиПЯЯ 287, Дыбо 14.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗlV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: peace
Russian meaning: мир
Turkic: *ēl
Mongolian: *el
Tungus-Manchu: *elke
Comments: EAS 145, KW 118, Poppe 76, ОСНЯ 1, 268, Rozycki 68. A Western isogloss (in fact, basically Turk.-Tung., since Mong. may be < Turk., see TMN 2, 200; Clark 1980, 43 on Mong. elči < Turk. ēl-či).
Proto-Altaic: *ḗna(kV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: middle, width
Russian meaning: середина, ширина
Turkic: *ēn
Mongolian: *eŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ene-kǖ
Korean: *ánh
Japanese: *nàká
Comments: VEWT 43, Martin 234. Note a common Altaic derivation in *-kV, reflected in all languages except Turkic; for TM we suppose a semantic development 'sheath' < 'receptacle' < 'inside, middle'. Jpn. has lost the first vowel in this archaic trisyllabic structure, and Kor. has rising tone also due to contraction.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗnV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: pain, sickness
Russian meaning: боль, болезнь
Turkic: *ēn-
Mongolian: *ene-ri, -l-
Tungus-Manchu: *enū-
Comments: KW 122, Poppe 69. A Western isogloss. Despite Doerfer MT 47, TM cannot be borrowed from Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *ēŋa(k`V)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: chin, jaw
Russian meaning: подбородок, челюсть
Turkic: *ēŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)eŋge
Japanese: *ánk-
Comments: One could also reconstruct *ēna(k`V) - in which case cf. Kor. anɨm 'jowl, meat of the cheek' (KED 1068).
Proto-Altaic: *ēŋV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to think, understand
Russian meaning: думать, понимать
Turkic: *āŋ, *āŋ-la-
Mongolian: *aɣuda-la-
Tungus-Manchu: *eŋē-
Japanese: *ǝ̀mǝ̀-p-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1,154 (Turk.-Mong.), АПиПЯЯ 286. The Jpn. word poses some problems: its accent does not correspond to Turkic length, and if we reconstruct *ēŋo (as required by Jpn. *ǝ-), PT should have a closed *ạ̄. It is worth while therefore to consider other explanations of Jpn. *ǝ̀mǝ̀-p-: e. g. compare it with Mong. ojun 'thought' and reconstruct a separate protoform like *uńo.
Proto-Altaic: *ḕŋV
Meaning: cloud, darkness
Russian meaning: облако
Mongolian: *eɣüle
Tungus-Manchu: *ēŋ-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗpo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hunt, kill
Russian meaning: охотиться, убивать
Turkic: *Āb
Mongolian: *aba
Tungus-Manchu: *wā- ( = *ebā-)
Japanese: *ǝ́p-
Comments: KW 19, Poppe 46, 97. Cf. Manchu ebte ǵaxun 'hunting bird' (perhaps preserving the original shape of the root *eb(a)-, that has elsewhere been irregularly reduced to *ewā- > *wā-). Despite TMN 1, 107, 2, 131, Щербак 1997, 94, there is no reason for assuming Turk. > Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗŕa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to go astray, mistake
Russian meaning: сбиваться с пути, ошибаться
Turkic: *āŕ-
Mongolian: *ereɣü
Tungus-Manchu: *er[e]-
Korean: *ǝ̀rjǝ́-b-
Japanese: *árá-
Comments: EAS 107, 145-146, SKE 56 (Mong.:Tung.:Kor.). Mong. and Turk. have also suffixed forms that may belong to the same root (with front / back vowel variation): cf. Mong. arča- 'to quarrel, argue'; erüs- 'to rival, compete'; Turk. *ersi- 'mean, nasty' (see Дыбо 12); perhaps also Mong. *arila- 'to disappear, vanish' ( < '*to miss'), see MGCD 118.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗra
Meaning: rough
Russian meaning: грубый
Turkic: *Ērig
Mongolian: *ar-
Korean: *ar-
Japanese: *árá-
Comments: Martin 225 (Kor.-Jpn.)
Proto-Altaic: *ḗre ( ~ -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: early
Russian meaning: рано, ранний
Turkic: *ẹ̄r
Mongolian: *er-te
Tungus-Manchu: *erü-n
Korean: *ìrɨ̀-
Comments: EAS 146, KW 126, VEWT 46, SKE 69, Poppe 106, Menges 1984, 267, Дыбо 11, Лексика 79. Cf. perhaps also MKor. jǝ̄t 'now' ( < *jǝ̄r-t = Mong., Turk. *erte?); Lee 1958, 108 also draws MKor. ǝri 'time, season', ǝrɨn 'quickly', which we were unable to identify. Borrowing in Mong. from Turk. (Щербак 1997, 116) is hardly plausible: the *-t`V suffix in this case must be Common Altaic. The etymology is still quite valid, despite all attempts of Doerfer (TMN 4, 257-259). Cf. also Turk. *er-k- 'early; ancient' = Mong. argi- 'to be old, ancient, mature'.
Proto-Altaic: *ērt`a ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to carry on back
Russian meaning: нести на спине
Turkic: *ạ̄rt-
Mongolian: *ači-
Comments: VEWT 27, KW 18. A Turko-Mongolian isogloss; in Turkic the root has partially merged with PT *ārt 'back' (see under *p`i̯ṑrí).
Proto-Altaic: *ḕs[i]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to take care of
Russian meaning: заботиться
Turkic: *es
Mongolian: *asara-
Tungus-Manchu: *ēske-
Korean: *às-kàb-, *às-kí-
Japanese: *ìsàma-
Comments: Дыбо 14. Vocalism is not quite certain (in Mong. one would rather expect a front *e-).
Proto-Altaic: *ḗt`a
Meaning: to take care of, to deal with
Russian meaning: заботиться (о), иметь дело (с)
Turkic: *ēt-
Tungus-Manchu: *ete-
Korean: *àtáŋ
Japanese: *átúkáp-
Comments: Дыбо 15. Cf. also Mong. atugaj 'be! (imper.)' (MMong. aduɣai 'er soll sein', SH). Cf. *ĭ̀t`á. {Cf. PEsk *ita-ɣ- 'to take care of'.}
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Total of 2805 records 141 page

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Back: 1 20
Forward: 1 20 50 100

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