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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ĕgi ( ~ -e, -a)
Meaning: to bend
Russian meaning: гнуть
Turkic: *eg-
Mongolian: *eɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *ege-
Korean: *ǝ̀i-
Comments: KW 130, SKE 51.
Proto-Altaic: *egmV
Meaning: shoulder, collarbone
Russian meaning: плечо, ключица
Turkic: *egin
Mongolian: *eɣem
Tungus-Manchu: *emu-ge
Comments: KW 130, Владимирцов 321, Poppe 60, Колесникова 1972а, 92-93, Дыбо 307, Лексика 240. A Western isogloss. Despite Щербак 1997, 114, Mong. is not < Turk. May be derived from *ĕgi 'to bend' q. v. Doerfer (TMN 2, 192) protests against the Turk.-Mong. comparison, but restricts himself to "einigen grundsätzlichen Bemerkungen" (a loan theory would have to explain Turk. *-n > Mong. -m).
Proto-Altaic: *egVrV
Meaning: to twist, spin
Russian meaning: крутить, вертеть, прясть
Turkic: *egir-
Mongolian: *eɣere-
Korean: *ǝ̀rɨ̀
Comments: KW 131, Владимирцов 194. Despite TMN 2, 193, Щербак 1997, 114, Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turk. The stem may be derived from *ĕgi 'to bend' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *éjá ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to be afraid
Russian meaning: бояться
Turkic: *Ej-men-
Mongolian: *aju-
Japanese: *ájá-
Comments: Poppe 66, АПиПЯЯ 79.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕju ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to speak, cry, sound
Russian meaning: говорить, кричать, звучать
Turkic: *ạj-ɨt-
Mongolian: *aji-
Tungus-Manchu: *ejē-
Korean: *òi'ó-
Comments: KW 4, 25, Владимирцов 282, Poppe 67, АПиПЯЯ 286. {SH parallels see in ND 101 *ʔ[a]yV}.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ̀ka (~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bad, weak
Russian meaning: плохой, слабый
Turkic: *ek-
Mongolian: *(h)egel
Tungus-Manchu: *eke
Japanese: *àk-
Comments: Дыбо 12. Mong. may be < Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *èk`á
Meaning: to paw, hit with hooves
Russian meaning: бить копытами
Turkic: *agsa-
Mongolian: *(h)agsa-
Tungus-Manchu: *ekte-
Japanese: *ànkà-k-
Comments: KW 5. Both Turkic and Mongolian languages have also a derivative meaning 'rampage, rage, raging': Karakh. aχsuŋ, axsum (MK), aqsun (QB), Chag. aqsum, axsum, Az. aqsɨn, Kirgh. aqsɨm etc.; WMong. aɣsum, Khalkha agsaŋ, Bur. agsam, Ord. agsum (DO 7) 'wild, raging', Khalkha agsam 'rampage'. Doerfer (TMN 2, 90) supposes a loanword in Turk. < Mong.; Shcherbak (Щербак 1997, 103) - vice versa; the final decision is still unclear.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕk`à (~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: elder sister
Russian meaning: старшая сестра
Turkic: *eke
Mongolian: *eke, *egeče
Tungus-Manchu: *eKe / *keKe
Korean: *kjǝ̄-čìp
Japanese: *kaka
Comments: EAS 91, KW 118, Poppe 55, VEWT 38, АПиПЯЯ 292, Цинциус 1972a, 29-31, Дыбо 6. The root is (like most other kinship terms) a "nursery word", but very well attested in all branches, so - despite Doerfer TMN 1, 190-191 - all forms cannot be explained as borrowings (although some later interactions were of course possible, e.g. Mong. egeče may - because of its irregular -g- and meaning coinciding with Turkic - be a later Turkic loanword).
Proto-Altaic: *éli
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sufficient
Russian meaning: достаточный
Mongolian: *el-
Tungus-Manchu: *ele-
Korean: *ǝr-
Japanese: *ír-
Comments: KW 119, Lee 1958, 108 (TM-Kor.), Rozycki 68. Despite Doerfer MT 20, TM *ele is hardly < Mong. (a particle in Mong. vs. a widespread verb in TM).
Proto-Altaic: *ĕlV(-k`V)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: deer
Russian meaning: олень
Turkic: *elik
Mongolian: *ili
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)elkēn
Comments: KW 207, ОСНЯ 1, 273, Лексика 153, 389. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕĺǯu
Meaning: donkey
Russian meaning: осел
Turkic: *eĺgek
Mongolian: *elǯigen
Tungus-Manchu: *eji-ken
Comments: KW 119, Владимирцов 323, Poppe 86. A Western isogloss. The phonology of the word strongly resists all attempts to regard it as an interlingual borrowing (Turk. > Mong. > TM, see, e.g., Rozycki 67), as well as attempts to derive it from Armen. etc.
Proto-Altaic: *ema ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to come
Russian meaning: приходить
Mongolian: *amada-
Tungus-Manchu: *eme-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. Cf. perhaps also Karakh. öme 'guest, foreigner'.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ̀ma (~-o)
Meaning: to stay, be left, leave
Russian meaning: оставаться, оставлять
Tungus-Manchu: *emē-n-
Japanese: *àmà-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 279. A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss. Cf. perhaps also MKor. mǝ̀mɨ́r- 'to stay, remain' ( < *Vmǝ-mɨr-, with a rather usual Korean loss of initial vowel?).
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ̀me
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: woman, female
Russian meaning: женщина, самка
Turkic: *eme
Mongolian: *eme
Tungus-Manchu: *emV
Korean: *ámh
Japanese: *mía
Comments: EAS 116, Цинциус 1972a, 20-27, Menges 1984, 265, АПиПЯЯ 89, 279. In Jpn. cf. also omo 'mother' (see Ozawa 61, Murayama 1962, 110, Miller 1985a, 82); in MKor. also ǝ́mí 'mother' (see Martin 236). Jpn. mia represents a relatively rare case of a loss of initial vowel in Japanese.
Proto-Altaic: *èmi ( ~ a-, *ime)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to avoid, taboo
Russian meaning: избегать, табуировать
Turkic: *emge-
Mongolian: *emiɣe-
Japanese: *ìm-
Comments: KW 121.
Proto-Altaic: *emo
Meaning: front
Russian meaning: перед
Turkic: *ömgen
Mongolian: *emü-
Tungus-Manchu: *ume- / emu-
Comments: EAS 117, Владимирцов 154, SKE 54, Дыбо 307, Лексика 271. A Western isogloss. The vocalic reconstruction is somewhat uncertain: because of variation in PTM it is not quite clear whether Mong. has a secondary delabialization or Turkic has a secondary labialization. PA *ome is also possible.
Proto-Altaic: *emV ( ~ *ami)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to suck
Russian meaning: сосать
Turkic: *em-
Mongolian: *em-kü-
Comments: A Turko-Mongolian isogloss. One is tempted to suppose lost *p`- and to unite this root with TM *pemu-, Jpn. *pàm- (see *pĕ̀ma). This is, however, hardly possible, because both Middle Mongolian and Dagur have 0- here (while Mongor x- can easily be secondary in front of a voiceless stop). A possible solution would be a loss of *h- ( < *p`-) in Proto-Mongolian (or even Proto-Turko-Mongolian) under the influence of a phonetically close "nursery" word, *ĕ̀me 'mother, female' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *emV(ŋV)
Meaning: saddle, belt
Russian meaning: седло, пояс
Turkic: *ẹ̆dŋe-r
Mongolian: *emeɣe-l
Tungus-Manchu: *emu-l
Comments: Мудрак Дисс. 102, Лексика 539. A Western isogloss. The Turkic form should be explained as a contraction < *emŋe-der (*emŋe- = Mong. emeɣe-).
Proto-Altaic: *eńa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sin, bad behaviour
Russian meaning: грех, дурное поведение
Turkic: *(i)ańɨg
Mongolian: *ende-
Tungus-Manchu: *eńe-
Korean: *āń-
Comments: The root must have denoted "bad behaviour" in general, whence all the attested meanings: "mistake", "sin", "robbery".
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ́ńa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mother, elder sister
Russian meaning: мать, старшая сестра
Turkic: *ana / *eńe
Tungus-Manchu: *eńi-
Korean: *ǝ̀ńí
Japanese: *ánái
Comments: Цинциус 1972a, 27-29, АПиПЯЯ 78. A "nursery word" (like most kinship terms), but no doubt archaic.
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