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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *dṓn(e)k`V
Meaning: withers, back
Russian meaning: холка, спина
Turkic: *jōnak
Mongolian: *döŋ(ge)
Tungus-Manchu: *doŋka
Korean: *tɨ̀ŋ
Comments: The Kor. word is alternatively compared with Mong. tüŋke 'muscles of the back' (SKE 268, EAS 49, 120) - but we were unable to find the word in available sources.
Proto-Altaic: *dōre
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to go, walk, approach
Russian meaning: идти, ходить, приближаться
Turkic: *jorɨ- / *jüri-
Mongolian: *dürbe-
Tungus-Manchu: *dūrē-
Japanese: *dǝ́r-
Comments: EAS 52, АПиПЯЯ 284, Дыбо 13. The frequently compared with Turk. WMong. ǯorči- 'to ride, wander' (see KW 476, Владимирцов 187, VEWT 207), is most likely a loanword (ǯorči- < *ǯorti-, from the Turk. derived form *jor(ɨ)t- (ЭСТЯ 4, 226-227); cf. also *jorɨga 'pedestrian; ambler' (ЭСТЯ 4, 225) > WMong. ǯiruɣa, see VEWT 207, KW 115, TMN 4, 152, whence Yak., Dolg. ǯoruo, see Kaɫ. MEJ 23, 35, Stachowski 91)), *jorɨ- > WMong. ǯori- 'to head (somewhere)' (KW 478; hence Man. ǯori-, see Doerfer MT 115); see Щербак 1997, 125. Note that Doerfer's criticism (TMN 4, 219-220) of the Tung.-Turk. comparison is unacceptable. However, an archaic opposition of two roots (with *d- and *ǯ-) cannot be excluded: besides a peculiar variation *jorɨ-/ *jüri- in PT note also the tonal mismatch between PT *dūr- and PJ *dǝ́r-.
Proto-Altaic: *dubi ( ~ t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: skilled, accustomed
Russian meaning: умелый, привычный
Mongolian: *düj
Tungus-Manchu: *dub-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dŭ̀le
Meaning: night
Russian meaning: ночь
Mongolian: *düli-
Tungus-Manchu: *dolba
Japanese: *duà, *duà-rû
Comments: Murayama 1962, 108, АПиПЯЯ 71, 97, 276 (but the Turkic parallels listed there should be rejected). PJ *duà reflects a suffixed form < *dŭ̀l(e)-gV (-bV).
Proto-Altaic: *dure ( ~ t-, -ŕ-, -i)
Meaning: to burn, set fire
Russian meaning: зажигать, загораться
Mongolian: *dür-
Tungus-Manchu: *dur-
Comments: Poppe 22. Мудрак Дисс. 185. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss, but despite Doerfer MT 147, hardly a loanword in TM.
Proto-Altaic: *dŭŕi
Meaning: ring
Russian meaning: кольцо
Turkic: *jüŕ-
Mongolian: *dörü
Tungus-Manchu: *dur-
Comments: KW 99, Poppe 23, Лексика 549. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dū́li
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mad, crazy
Russian meaning: сумасшедший, глупый
Turkic: *jǖl-
Mongolian: *dülei
Tungus-Manchu: *dulbu-
Korean: *tor
Comments: SKE 272, Lee 1958, 108.
Proto-Altaic: *é
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: that (deictic root)
Russian meaning: тот (дейктическая основа)
Turkic: *ạ(-n)
Mongolian: *e-ne
Tungus-Manchu: *e-
Korean: *ā-mò
Japanese: *á-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 111-112, 277; EAS 126, KW 122, АПиПЯЯ 56, 292, Doerfer MT 21, Rozycki 70.
Proto-Altaic: *e
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: not
Russian meaning: не
Mongolian: *e-se
Tungus-Manchu: *e-
Comments: Poppe 65, KW 128, ОСНЯ 1, 265, АПиПЯЯ 44, 291. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *èbà
Meaning: to join, meet
Russian meaning: соединять(ся), встречать
Turkic: *ab-
Mongolian: *aɣu-lǯa-
Tungus-Manchu: *ebu-re-
Korean: *àbór-
Japanese: *àp-
Comments: SKE 12, Martin 234, Ozawa 167-168. An attempt of Doerfer (TMN 1, 173) to disprove Ramstedt's etymology (by supposing *h- in Mong.) is unsuccessful. Korean has a low tone, typical for the verbal subsystem.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕbà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to winnow, fan
Russian meaning: веять, провеивать
Turkic: *ebis-
Tungus-Manchu: *ebiri-
Japanese: *apu-
Comments: The root is not widely represented, but seems quite reliable. A derivative *ĕbà-rV is reflected in Nan. ebiri- = OJ apu-t-, apu-r-. Cf. *ap`i.
Proto-Altaic: *éba(-ku)
Meaning: marsh-mallow, hollyhock
Russian meaning: пастушья сумка, алтей, шток-роза
Mongolian: *(h)abuga
Tungus-Manchu: *ebke-
Korean: *à'ók
Japanese: *ápúpi
Comments: Lee 1958, 105 (Man.-Kor.).
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ̀bè
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to carry on the back
Russian meaning: нести на спине
Mongolian: *eɣüre-
Tungus-Manchu: *ebe-
Korean: *ǝ̀p-
Japanese: *ǝ̀p-
Comments: Martin 238. Korean has a verbal low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *ebí
Meaning: to be weak, to wither
Russian meaning: быть слабым, изможденным
Tungus-Manchu: *ebe-
Korean: *ǝ̀bí-
Japanese: *impu-sia-
Comments: PKE 59. An Eastern isogloss. Cf. *àpo.
Proto-Altaic: *èbla
Meaning: egg
Russian meaning: яйцо
Turkic: *o(bɨ)l-duruk
Mongolian: *(h)eɣülde
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)elū-
Korean: *árh
Comments: In Turk. *obɨl-duruk probably < *abɨl-duruk with secondary narrowing in a long wordform. Kor. *árh reflects a suffixed *èbla-gV.
Proto-Altaic: *ebo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: enough, big
Russian meaning: достаточный, большой
Turkic: {*ebe- }
Mongolian: *(h)öɣ- / *(h)öb-
Tungus-Manchu: *ebi-
Korean: *ò'ắ-
Comments: Cf. PJ *ǝ̀pǝ̀- 'big' which may reflect a merger of this root with *ĕ̀p`o q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *ebVrV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: worm, snake
Russian meaning: червь, змея
Turkic: *ebren
Tungus-Manchu: *ūre
Japanese: *bǝ̀rǝ̀tì ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: The Turkic form strongly suggests that PJ *bǝ̀rǝ̀tì is a contraction of a longer *ǝ̀bǝ̀rǝ̀tì.
Proto-Altaic: *éča
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: early, morning
Russian meaning: рано, недавно, утро
Tungus-Manchu: *esī
Korean: *àčhắm
Japanese: *àsâ
Comments: Martin 236. An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕda
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thing, goods
Russian meaning: вещь, добро
Turkic: *ed
Mongolian: *aǯi- / *ada-
Tungus-Manchu: *idegē (/*e-)
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕdV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: host, husband
Russian meaning: хозяин, муж
Turkic: *Edi
Mongolian: *eǯen
Tungus-Manchu: *edī-
Comments: EAS 97, KW 130, Poppe 53, 105, Цинциус 1972a, 49-52, Дыбо 6. A Western isogloss. Despite Щербак 1997, 114, Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turk. Doerfer's (TMN 2, 177-178) doubts in the validity of the etymology are hardly grounded: all forms are easily explained if we suppose a protoform like *edije. The form can be in fact an old derivative of *ĕda 'thing, household' (q. v., cf. Poppe UJb XIII, 114, 120).
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Back: 1 20
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