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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *ăŋatV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of duck
Russian meaning: вид утки
Turkic: *Ăŋ(k)ɨt
Mongolian: *aŋgir
Tungus-Manchu: *andi
Japanese: *anti
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 71, Лексика 172. Cf. also Mong. aŋgat 'аркалик (птица)' ( < Turk.); but for *aŋgir borrowing is hardly possible, despite TMN 2, 130, Щербак 1997, 192. Mong. -r here requires an explanation: it is most probably a result of reinterpreting the original *aŋgid as a plural form and rebuilding a new singular *aŋgir (cf. *nökör - *nököd etc.). The word is widely spread in Siberian languages, see Аникин 70.
Proto-Altaic: *aŋt`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fragrant plant
Russian meaning: вид пахучего растения
Turkic: *Aŋduŕ
Mongolian: *(h)aǯVrgana
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)an(d)ikta
Japanese: *àntùsà
Comments: Name of a fragrant grass, probably geranium-like. One should also note Mong. inaɣda (Khalkha janagd) 'willow-herb' - looking suspiciously close to some TM forms (a loan from TM?).
Proto-Altaic: *ăŋu
Meaning: wild game
Russian meaning: дикий зверь, дичь
Turkic: *Ăŋ
Mongolian: *(h)oɣuna
Tungus-Manchu: *aŋa-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *aŋV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: separate, different
Russian meaning: отдельный, другой
Mongolian: *aŋgi-
Tungus-Manchu: *aŋa-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *àpo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to wear out, be spoiled
Russian meaning: изнашиваться, портиться
Turkic: *obu-ra- / *obu-n-
Mongolian: *ebe-
Tungus-Manchu: *abu-
Japanese: *àpà-
Comments: Cf. *ebí.
Proto-Altaic: *apuči
Meaning: elder in-law
Russian meaning: старший свойственник
Turkic: *Abuč-ka
Mongolian: *(h)abisu-n
Tungus-Manchu: *abusi
Comments: A Western isogloss. Mong. has -s- (instead of the expected *-č-) probably because of a fusion with the productive suffix -su(n).
Proto-Altaic: *apV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to take
Russian meaning: брать
Turkic: *ạbuč
Mongolian: *abi-
Tungus-Manchu: *abgu-
Comments: A Western isogloss. KW 19, Poppe 44. Despite TMN 4, 307-310, PT *abuč (*abut) cannot be regarded as a variant of *adɨ[ĺ] (on which see under *alda) - although the two roots could have influenced each other. The closed vowel in PT is not quite clear (under the influence of the two following labial phonemes?).
Proto-Altaic: *áp`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: father
Russian meaning: отец
Turkic: *apa
Mongolian: *ab[u]
Tungus-Manchu: *apa
Korean: *àpí
Comments: EAS 140, Цинциус 1972a, 32-37. A common Altaic "nursery" word. Cf. *ĕp`a.
Proto-Altaic: *àp`akV ( ~ -k`-)
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Turkic: *apaka
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)apkā-
Japanese: *àpàkì
Comments: The root is sparsely attested, but seems reliable {unless the Turkic forms are borrowed < Mong. abuɣa 'marshmallow' - q. v. sub *éba(-ku)}.
Proto-Altaic: *ap`i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wind, vapour
Russian meaning: ветер, пар
Turkic: *Ep-
Mongolian: *aɣur
Tungus-Manchu: *apka
Comments: A Western isogloss; however, in Jpn. the root probably merged with *ĕbà 'winnow, blow' q. v. (cf. especially the PJ form with a velar suffix *apu-(n)k-, OJ apug-).
Proto-Altaic: *ằra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: back, behind
Russian meaning: спина, задняя сторона
Turkic: *ărka
Mongolian: *aru
Tungus-Manchu: *arka-
Japanese: *àtuà
Comments: EAS 139, KW 12, Poppe 78, Колесникова 1972а, 84-87, Дыбо 305, Лексика 268, TMN 2, 29-30, Doerfer MT 46. PT *arka and PTM *arka go back to a dative-locative formation *ara-k`a.
Proto-Altaic: *ara
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of insect
Russian meaning: вид насекомого
Mongolian: *araɣalǯin
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)arabgī
Japanese: *ari
Comments: The root denotes some small biting insect.
Proto-Altaic: *àŕì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thorn, fang
Russian meaning: шип, клык
Turkic: *aŕɨg
Mongolian: *ariɣa
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ar- (?)
Japanese: *ìrà
Comments: KW 12, Владимирцов 361, EAS 111, Poppe 81, Лексика 229. Despite TMN 2, 55-56, Щербак 1997, 103 Mong. is not < Turk. The TM reflexes are weak: the Evk. form is semantically difficult, while Manchu arGan may well be borrowed < Mong.; however, the parallel form ar-sun is hard to explain as a loan (no similar form is attested in Mong.).
Proto-Altaic: *àrp`á
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: barley, millet
Russian meaning: ячмень, просо
Turkic: *arpa
Mongolian: *arbaj
Tungus-Manchu: *arpa
Japanese: *àpá
Comments: EAS 90, KW 15, Poppe 87. АПиПЯЯ 67. The Mong. form cannot be explained as a Turkism (despite TMN 2, 24, Щербак 1997, 100). The Turkic form is sometimes compared with Proto-Iran. *arba- (corresponding to Gr. alphi), cf. East Iranian forms going back to *arpasyā- (or *arbasyā) (Стеблин-Каменский 1982, 23), but it is not identical (loss of the final syllable is hard to explain); on the other hand, the Jpn. parallel is a strong argument in favour of the Altaic origin of the Turkic form.
Proto-Altaic: *ărV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: witchcraft, craft
Russian meaning: волшебство, искусство
Turkic: *ar-
Mongolian: *arga
Tungus-Manchu: *ar-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *aŕV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: or
Russian meaning: или
Turkic: *aŕu
Japanese: *ar-
Comments: JOAL 147. An interesting Turkic-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *arV ( ~ e-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to change, sell
Russian meaning: менять, продавать
Turkic: *Ar-
Mongolian: *aralǯi-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss; not quite reliable. Jpn. *úr- could be a match, but it may also reflect PA *úŕi q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *ase ( ~ p`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to catch fire; hot
Russian meaning: загораться; горячий
Turkic: *ɨsɨg / *isig
Mongolian: *(h)asa-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 288. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss; cf. (?) Kor. (SKE 217) s:a-da 'to be hot'; s:ǝ-da 'to kindle (fire)' (the forms are nowhere to be found except SKE).
Proto-Altaic: *ătV
Meaning: horse
Russian meaning: лошадь
Turkic: *ăt
Mongolian: *aduɣu-
Tungus-Manchu: *abdu-
Comments: Новикова 1972, 108, АПиПЯЯ 15, Doerfer MT 99. A Western isogloss. Cf. also PT *adgɨr (Лексика 442, ЭСТЯ 1, 107-108, Stachowski 40), Mong. aǯirga 'stallion', Dag. adirag, ad́irga, S.-Yugh. aǯirɣa, Mongor aǯirGa (see KW 2, Владимирцов 397, VEWT 6; TMN 2, 186-187, Щербак 1997, 94: Turk. > Mong.; Mong. > Evk. aǯirga etc., see Poppe 1966, 192, Doerfer MT 75, MKor. ačirkǝi măr, see Lee 1958, 119). It is possible to reconstruct *atbV or *abtV.
Proto-Altaic: *at`i
Meaning: son, young
Russian meaning: сын, детеныш
Turkic: *Atɨ
Mongolian: *ači
Korean: *àtắr
Japanese: *itua
Comments: Владимирцов 324, АПиПЯЯ 287.
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