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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *dile
Meaning: udder
Russian meaning: вымя
Turkic: *jẹlin
Mongolian: *deleŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *dilba
Comments: Poppe 22, 76, Лексика 148 (with lit.). A Western isogloss. Despite Щербак 1997, 123 Mong. cannot be borrowed < Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *dile ( ~ t-, -ĺ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of insect or worm
Russian meaning: вид насекомого или червя
Mongolian: *dele-
Tungus-Manchu: *dilu-kē
Korean: *tīroŋ
Comments: A common derivative *dile-kV (-k`V) is reflected in Mong. *dele-g- and TM *dilu-kē.
Proto-Altaic: *dĭ̀lo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: year; sun, sun cycle
Russian meaning: год; солнце, солнечный цикл
Turkic: *jɨl
Mongolian: *ǯil
Tungus-Manchu: *dilačā
Korean: *tolč
Japanese: *tǝ̀sì
Comments: EAS 52, KW 109, Владимирцов 171, Martin 246, ОСНЯ 1, 220, JOAL 119, АПиПЯЯ 31, 88, 278-279, Дыбо 11, Лексика 71. Mong. may be < Turk. (see TMN 4, 251, Щербак 1997, 124). The Eastern form go back to a suffixed *dĭ̀lo-č`V.
Proto-Altaic: *dilu
Meaning: juice, resin
Russian meaning: сок, смола
Turkic: *jülük / *juluk
Mongolian: *ǯilij
Tungus-Manchu: *dilgu
Comments: Дыбо 10. A Western isogloss. One wonders if the root is not actually derived (as *dij-lu) from *dijV 'tar, to melt' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *dilu
Meaning: brain
Russian meaning: мозг
Turkic: *julɨŋ / *jülüŋ
Mongolian: *ǯiluɣa / *ǯulaj
Tungus-Manchu: *dili
Comments: Дыбо 314, Лексика 263. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *diŋe
Meaning: to win
Russian meaning: побеждать
Turkic: *jẹŋ-
Mongolian: *dejil-
Tungus-Manchu: *diŋe-
Comments: KW 92. A Western isogloss. The Turkic and Mong. forms are no doubt related, but Ramstedt treats them both as derived from *deg- 'top'. Since we divide the traditional reconstruction of the latter root into *di̯òge and *tēga (q. v.), such a derivation seems less plausible. The Ud. form diŋe-, albeit isolated in TM, also supports deriving Turk. *jẹŋ- and Mong. dejil- from a separate root.
Proto-Altaic: *dísa
Meaning: to guard, preserve
Russian meaning: охранять, сохранять
Mongolian: *ǯise-
Tungus-Manchu: *disu-
Japanese: *jásí-nap-
Comments: A good common Altaic verbal root.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ági ( ~ -i̯o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fish
Russian meaning: рыба
Mongolian: *ǯiɣa-
Korean: *thi
Japanese: *(d)íwuá
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 100, 275, Дыбо 46, Лексика 178, Vovin 2000. TM *ǯoji (in fact *ǯobi) 'Salmo lenoc' (compared in some of the above sources) has a precise match in WMong. ǯebege and has to be separated; see *ǯi̯abo. The Jpn. form could also belong there phonetically, but the close match with Kor. thi makes its derivation from *di̯ági more plausible.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ari
Meaning: a small animal (flying squirrel)
Russian meaning: мелкое животное (белка-летяга)
Turkic: *jar- / *jer-
Mongolian: *ǯirke
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯ(i)arami ( ~ d-)
Korean: *tằràmí
Japanese: *(d)ìtàti
Comments: Лексика 168. Low tone in Jpn. does not correspond to Kor. (but cf. different dialectal variants). The root must have denoted some small rodent, possibly a flying squirrel (which could explain the meaning 'bat' in Turkic). One should also mention PM *ǯaraɣa 'hedgehog, porcupine' = Karakh. jarpuz 'mongoose', possibly derived from the same root. A different etymology of the Turkic word (comparing it with Evk. ńarbakin 'naked' and deriving from a *ńarV 'naked skin', see Stachowski 1999) seems less likely to us.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ā́no ( ~ *di̯ṓne)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: flat surface, land
Russian meaning: плоская поверхность, суша
Turkic: *jān
Mongolian: *denǯi
Tungus-Manchu: *dunse
Comments: A Western isogloss. The meaning 'side' in Turkic is easily deducible from 'land' (cf. Russ. страна - сторона).
Proto-Altaic: *di̯òge
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: good, better
Russian meaning: хороший, лучше
Turkic: *jẹg-
Mongolian: *ǯaɣa
Korean: *tjōh-
Japanese: *dǝ̀-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 103, 275. Despite the meaning of the Chuvash form ("up") the Turk. root should be rather compared with this Korean and Japanese data than with Mong. degde- 'rise' etc. (see VEWT 194 with literature). On the latter root see under *tēga. The Mong. vocalism in *ǯaɣa is somewhat aberrant: it is probably a result of early vowel assimilation < *ǯiɣa (the variants ǯiɣa- and ǯaɣa- in WMong. interchange frequently).
Proto-Altaic: *di̯okt`V ( ~ t-)
Meaning: socks, stockings
Russian meaning: носки, чулки
Mongolian: *degtej
Tungus-Manchu: *dokta
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯úblu ( ~ -a)
Meaning: a k. of predator
Russian meaning: вид хищника
Turkic: *jolbars
Mongolian: *ǯilar
Tungus-Manchu: *dolbi
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ŭlgu ( ~ -a)
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Russian meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Turkic: *jɨlgun
Mongolian: *dolugana
Tungus-Manchu: *dulgikta
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯up`ú
Meaning: wing, fin
Russian meaning: крыло, плавник
Mongolian: *ǯiber
Japanese: *tumpasa
Comments: JOAL 98. A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss; cf. perhaps Tuva čakpa ( < *japka) 'fin'.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ū̀lu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: warm
Russian meaning: теплый
Turkic: *jɨlɨ-g
Mongolian: *dulaɣan
Tungus-Manchu: *dūl-
Japanese: *dù
Comments: EAS 51, KW 102, Владимирцов 174, Poppe 23, 75, JOAL 85, ОСНЯ 1, 221-222, Murayama 1962, 108, АПиПЯЯ 51, 72, 284, Дыбо 11, Лексика 21. Despite Щербак 1997, 124, Mong. cannot be explained as a Turkic loanword, and despite Doerfer MT 72 the TM and Mong. forms should be regarded as genuinely related. Note that several forms reflect an original derivative *di̯ūl(u)-gV (Turk., Mong. and Jpn. *dù < *di̯ul-gu).
Proto-Altaic: *dòru
Meaning: rule, permission
Russian meaning: закон, разрешение
Turkic: *jor-
Mongolian: *dura-
Tungus-Manchu: *dora(n)
Japanese: *dùrù-
Comments: An interesting common Altaic root, with the original meaning reconstructable perhaps as 'interpretation (of desires or intentions)' and thus 'permission, rule'.
Proto-Altaic: *dòru
Meaning: weak, slack, emaciated
Russian meaning: слабый, истощенный
Turkic: *jor-
Mongolian: *doru
Tungus-Manchu: *duru-
Japanese: *dùrù-
Comments: The root is homonymous with *dòru 'rule, permission', but hardly has anything in common with it etymologically.
Proto-Altaic: *dorVkV
Meaning: a k. of badger
Russian meaning: вид барсука
Turkic: *jorukan
Mongolian: *dorugun
Tungus-Manchu: *d[o]riken
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dṑ ( ~ t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: inside, middle
Russian meaning: внутри, середина
Mongolian: *do- / *du-
Tungus-Manchu: *dō
Korean: *tắi
Comments: ТМС 1, 210, Rozycki 61. One of the few monosyllabic roots in PA.
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