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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`upa
Meaning: grey
Russian meaning: серый
Turkic: *čubar
Mongolian: *čabidar
Tungus-Manchu: *čub-rī-
Comments: A Western isogloss. KW 431, Poppe 26, 48. Mong. > late MTurk. čabdar (see Щербак 1997, 202), Evk. čabidar etc., see Doerfer MT 101, Rozycki 41.
Proto-Altaic: *č`up`V
Meaning: through
Russian meaning: сквозь, через
Mongolian: *čoɣu
Tungus-Manchu: *čup-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss (but cf. also Tuva šuptu 'all' < TM?). See PKE 38 (although Kor. čōi hardly belongs here).
Proto-Altaic: *dắgá
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: near; to follow
Russian meaning: близкий; следовать
Turkic: *jạgu-
Mongolian: *daɣa-ri-
Tungus-Manchu: *daga
Korean: *ta(h)-
Japanese: *dánká-
Comments: EAS 51, 91, 92, KW 72, Poppe 22, Doerfer MT 241, АПиПЯЯ 15, 26-27, 71, 278, Дыбо 12. Closed vowel in Turkic is unexpected (*jag- would be a normal reflex).
Proto-Altaic: *dằgì
Meaning: enemy, alien
Russian meaning: враг, чужак
Turkic: *jagɨ
Mongolian: *dajin
Tungus-Manchu: *dagu-r
Korean: *tōi
Japanese: *(d)ìkùsà
Comments: EAS 50, 88, KW 83, Владимирцов 267, Дыбо 7, 15. Borrowing in Mong. from Turk. (TMN 4, 101-102, Щербак 1997, 121) is impossible. A suffixed form *dagi-gu (*dagi-u) accounts for labialization in the second syllable (in TM, Jpn. and, originally, in Kor.).
Proto-Altaic: *dagV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shoulder bone, back
Russian meaning: плечевая кость, спина
Turkic: *jagɨr, *jagrɨn
Mongolian: *dajira / *daɣari
Tungus-Manchu: *daga-
Comments: Владимирцов 318, Колесникова 1972а, 89-91. A Western isogloss. Despite Щербак 1997, 121 Mong. is not < Turk. Turk. *jagɨr represents in fact a merger of two different original roots (see *ńĕka). See also TMN 4, 177-178 (with unconvincing criticism).
Proto-Altaic: *dáku
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: coverlet
Russian meaning: покрытие, покрывало
Turkic: *jogurgan
Tungus-Manchu: *dakan-
Japanese: *dúká
Comments: Cf. also Bur. dagadxa 'unworked leather, leather mat'. Turk. -o- must be a result of secondary narrowing in a polysyllabic word < *jagu-rgan.
Proto-Altaic: *dằk`ì
Meaning: follow, near
Russian meaning: следовать, близкий
Turkic: *jAk-ɨn
Mongolian: *daka-, *daga-
Tungus-Manchu: *daxa-
Japanese: *tìkà-
Comments: KW 73, ОСНЯ 1, 215-216, Doerfer TMN 4, 105 (with some unsubstantial criticism), MT 241, АПиПЯЯ 15, 26-27, 71, 278. Despite Doerfer MT 142, TM is hardly borrowed from Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *dala ( ~ -e-)
Meaning: a k. of building
Russian meaning: вид здания
Mongolian: *dal
Japanese: *da
Comments: Street 1985, 640. A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dằĺà ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to close, hide
Russian meaning: закрывать, прятать
Turkic: *jaĺ-
Mongolian: *dal-
Tungus-Manchu: *dal(i)-
Korean: *tjǝ́r
Japanese: *dàsìrǝ̀
Comments: EAS 51, KW 73, Владимирцов 365, Poppe 22-23, 77, Дыбо 12, Miller 1970, 127, Street 1980, 297, JOAL 86. Despite Doerfer MT 18, PTM *dali- cannot be borrowed from Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *dàli
Meaning: to roast, burn
Russian meaning: жарить, жечь
Mongolian: *dölü
Tungus-Manchu: *dalga-
Korean: *tàr-
Japanese: *(d)ìr-
Comments: EAS 1, 124, SKE 252. Korean has a usual verbal low tone; Mong. *dölü < *delü (from an earlier *deli-w). On a possible Turkic reflex see under *ǯi̯ale.
Proto-Altaic: *dalo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sweet, tasty
Russian meaning: сладкий, вкусный
Turkic: *j[ɨ]l-ɨnčga
Mongolian: {*dolgun-čug 'gluttonous, edacious'}
Tungus-Manchu: *dal-{}
Korean: *tằr-
Comments: SKE 253, EAS 51. In Turk. *-a- would be expected; Karakh. jɨlɨnčga is probably an assimilation < *jalɨnčga.
Proto-Altaic: *dalp`V ( ~ -e-, -p-)
Meaning: to shake, sway
Russian meaning: качать, махать
Turkic: *jelpi- / *jalpɨ-
Mongolian: *delbe- / *dalba-
Comments: KW 87. An expressive Turk.-Mong. isogloss, tending to merge (both in Turk. and Mong.) with the reflexes of *dĕ̀lp`à 'flat, broad' ("to shake, flatter (of flat objects)"). One cannot exclude that a merger indeed took place, and the original shape of the root had been *dalV ( ~ -e-) without the *-p`-: cf. WMong. dalaji- 'to brandish, swing' (see TMN 1, 328-329), dele- 'to wave, flap (wings)'; Karakh. jalŋu 'flip-flap, the swing' (EDT 930), see SKE 258.
Proto-Altaic: *dàma
Meaning: ill, sick, bad
Russian meaning: больной, плохой
Turkic: *jAman
Tungus-Manchu: *dam-
Japanese: *dàm-
Comments: Despite SKE 75 there is no reason at all to suppose a Chinese origin of the Turkic form (MC ja-mạn 'savage, barbarian' is too distant semantically; the usage of PT *jaman for a bad disease, sickness is very close to Japanese and may suggest that the original meaning of the root was 'ill(ness), sick(ness)').
Proto-Altaic: *dằŋk`V ( ~ t-)
Meaning: blame, guilt
Russian meaning: вина, обвинение
Tungus-Manchu: *daŋ-
Japanese: *tǝ̀nká
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dari ( ~ t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to freeze
Russian meaning: замерзать
Mongolian: *dereji-
Tungus-Manchu: *dar-
Japanese: *(d)ita-
Comments: The root is not widely represented, but seems to be well reconstructable for PA. {Dolg. ND 561 adds OTurk. jarp 'firm, solid' which would support *dari.}
Proto-Altaic: *dărV(mV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: back, waist
Russian meaning: спина, поясница
Turkic: *jarɨn
Mongolian: *dere(me)
Tungus-Manchu: *darama
Comments: A Western isogloss. Somewhat different in Дыбо 305, Лексика 242; for Turkic cf. also PTM *dīre 'shoulderblade' (ТМС 1, 205).
Proto-Altaic: *dasa
Meaning: to regulate, govern
Russian meaning: управлять, регулировать
Turkic: *jAsa-
Mongolian: *das-
Tungus-Manchu: *dasa-
Korean: *tàs-
Comments: Lee 1958, 107 (TM-Kor.). The combination of meanings in Mong. here is suspiciously similar to PA *či̯ā́tu ( > Mong. dadu-); so one may wonder if Mong. *das- is not actually a derivative of *dad- (*dad-s-). In that case the form should be removed from the present etymology.
Proto-Altaic: *dắsi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a flat cover
Russian meaning: плоская покрышка
Turkic: *jAs-
Mongolian: *dasinga
Tungus-Manchu: *dasi-
Korean: *tìsài
Comments: The Turk. form can also be derived from *nèse 'to flatten, make even' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *dā́la
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wave, deep place
Russian meaning: волна; глубокое место
Turkic: *dāl-
Mongolian: *dalaj
Tungus-Manchu: *dal-
Japanese: *dara
Comments: Владимирцов 368, Doerfer MT 125. Despite TMN 1, 325, EDT 502 Mong. cannot be < Turkic (initial d- cannot be explained). See notes to *t`ṑle.
Proto-Altaic: *dā̀li
Meaning: glue; to glue, stick
Russian meaning: клей; приклеивать, прилипать
Turkic: *jẹli-m
Mongolian: *ǯil-
Tungus-Manchu: *dāl-bu-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 180. A Western isogloss. Turkic must have a secondary narrowing *e > *ẹ here (in a disyllabic structure?).
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