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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ale
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to spread, open wide
Russian meaning: расширяться, распространяться
Mongolian: *čala-
Tungus-Manchu: *čildi-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯álV
Meaning: a k. of thorny plant
Russian meaning: вид колючего растения
Turkic: *č(i)alɨ-
Mongolian: *čulkir
Tungus-Manchu: *čil-
Japanese: *tára
Comments: The root denotes a wild plant, probably thorny; the vocalic reconstruction is not quite certain. In TM one would expect a *čial-, but the diphthong may have been distorted in a long form with initial affricate; Mong. *čulukir may similarly represent a later assimilation < *čalu-kir. In that case one could reconstruct *č`i̯ála.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯aŋu ( ~ *č`i̯oŋe)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a sharp bone, sharp instrument
Russian meaning: острая кость, острый инструмент
Turkic: *čeŋe
Tungus-Manchu: *čoŋkī-
Korean: *čǝ̄ŋ ( ~ *čjǝ̄ŋ)
Comments: It is also tempting to compare PJ *tùnuá 'horn'.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯apa
Meaning: groin, hip
Russian meaning: пах, бедро
Mongolian: *čabi
Tungus-Manchu: *čiabu-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. Not quite secure: the TM forms can be alternatively derived from *čiKü-ki, a diminutive of *čiKi (*čiKü) 'pivot' (q. v. sub *č`ĭ̀k`o ); cf. with the same anatomical meaning Ewk. čiki, Ewn. čị̄q, Neg. čịx, Ud. cigi (ТМС 2, 391, Корм. 310). For this etymological direction see Дыбо 1988, p. 120.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ā́k`e ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: small
Russian meaning: маленький
Turkic: *čĀka
Mongolian: *čaka
Korean: *čjāk-, *čjǝ̄k-
Comments: SKE 20, EAS 64. Turkic forms are attested late and can be < Mong.; however, Turkm. čāGa with a long vowel is hard to explain as a loan. On the other hand, cf. Karakh. čekün 'young of marmot' (EDT 415), Evk. čekše 'tarbagan': if these words are related, the PA reconstruction should be changed to *č`ek`a.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯āk`e
Meaning: time
Russian meaning: время
Turkic: *čiāk
Mongolian: *čag
Tungus-Manchu: *čiK-
Korean: *čǝk
Japanese: *tǝ̀kì
Comments: EAS 64, KW 419, Poppe 26, Martin 244, Menges 1984, 266, АПиПЯЯ 76. Jpn. tone is irregular; it may be, however, due to an influence of another root (cf. *čĕk`a, OJ toko 'always, eternally' /accent unknown/). Mong. čag may be < Turk. (see TMN 3, 27-28, Щербак 1997, 112), but may as well be genuine. The Kor. reflex is quite regular (the attested čǝk is just an orthographic variant of the expected *čjǝk), despite Doerfer's doubts in TMN ibid.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ālu ( ~ *č`i̯ōla)
Meaning: to talk nonsense, babble
Russian meaning: болтать
Turkic: *čAl-
Mongolian: *čal-
Tungus-Manchu: *čōlī-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ŏ̀k`ó
Meaning: to agree, confirm
Russian meaning: соглашаться, подтверждать
Turkic: *čok-
Mongolian: *čoku-
Tungus-Manchu: *čixa
Japanese: *tǝ̀nká-
Comments: A good common Altaic verbal root.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ŏl[m]i ( ~ -e, *č`i̯ăl[m]o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hobble, tether
Russian meaning: треножить, привязывать
Turkic: *č(i)al-, *č(i)alma
Mongolian: *čilbur
Tungus-Manchu: *čulupkī-
Comments: A Western isogloss. The medial cluster is not quite secure (perhaps one should rather reconstructed *č`i̯ŏli with different suffixes). It is interesting to mention MKor. čjǝ́mpúr 'horse's mudguards' (Nam 426) - perhaps a (somewhat distorted) loanword < Mong. čilbur.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯olu
Meaning: crippled
Russian meaning: калека, неметь, затекать (о конечностях)
Turkic: *čol-
Mongolian: *čile-
Tungus-Manchu: *čial-
Korean: *čǝ̄rk
Japanese: *tur-
Comments: Cf. also Kor. čjǝri-da 'to be stiff (of limbs)', SKE 30, ОСНЯ 1, 203.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯op`a ( ~ *č`i̯ap`u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of clothing
Russian meaning: вид одежды
Turkic: *čAp
Mongolian: *čuba
Tungus-Manchu: *čop-
Comments: A Western isogloss; somewhat difficult - but necessary - to distinguish from *č`ep`à 'rag' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯op`è
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: water container, vessel
Russian meaning: водоем, сосуд
Turkic: *čap-
Mongolian: *čöɣerüm
Tungus-Manchu: *čup- / *čop-
Korean: *č(j)apa-
Japanese: *tǝ̀pî ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: A common derivative *č`i̯op`è-rV is reflected in Mong. *čöɣe-rü-m and Evk. čupe-r; another suffixed form, *č`i̯op`è-k`V (originally diminutive) may be reconstructed on the basis of Evk. čop-kī and Kor. čabä-gi. The root must have denoted a big water container, perhaps both artificial and natural.
Proto-Altaic: *č`[i̯o]ra
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Russian meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Turkic: *čar-
Mongolian: *čara-su
Tungus-Manchu: *čuru-
Korean: *čori-
Comments: The vocalism is uncertain; it is possible that the TM form should be removed from here and compared with Jpn. *tùrù, see notes to PA *čălù. In such case a reconstruction *č`aro for the present root would be possible.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ṑk`e ( ~ -k-)
Meaning: grass, weed
Russian meaning: трава, сорняк
Turkic: *čekin
Tungus-Manchu: *čūKa
Korean: *soksăi
Japanese: *tùkúsi
Comments: Mong. čike-n in names of plants may be a merger of this root and *č`ĭk`a q. v. Kor. soksăi 'horse-tail' is hard to separate from Jpn. tukusi id.; most probably we are dealing with an assimilation here (soksăi < *čoksăi).
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ṓli ( ~ -e, *č`i̯ā́lo)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: grey, light
Russian meaning: серый, светлый
Turkic: *čĀl
Mongolian: *čil- / *čel-
Tungus-Manchu: *čolka
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ugu
Meaning: to tie up, bandage
Russian meaning: связывать, наматывать
Turkic: *čɨg-
Mongolian: *čig
Tungus-Manchu: *čuga-
Comments: A Western. isogloss; borrowing in Mong. is possible, but not very probable for semantic reasons.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯úmu
Meaning: round(ed) object
Russian meaning: круглый, закругленный предмет
Turkic: *čɨmur
Mongolian: *čom-
Tungus-Manchu: *čumbu-
Japanese: *túmúnsí
Comments: An expressive common Altaic root; both in Turkic and Japanese its reflexes may have partially coincided with the reflexes of *č`ī̀mu 'top, edge' q. v., but in Mongolian and TM they seem to be distinct.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯umu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: seed, cone
Russian meaning: семя, шишка
Turkic: *čɨm
Mongolian: *čöme
Tungus-Manchu: *čum- / *čim-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ŭ̀p`ì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: small, narrow
Russian meaning: маленький, узкий
Mongolian: *čüɣe-n
Tungus-Manchu: *čip[u]-
Korean: *čòp-
Japanese: *tìpì-sà-
Comments: Martin 249. Korean has a "verbal" low tone. In Turk. cf. perhaps Kirgh. čɨpqa 'strainer', čɨpqala- 'to strain'.
Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ū́[g]a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: scarce, poor
Russian meaning: бедный
Turkic: *čɨ̄gań
Mongolian: *čukag
Tungus-Manchu: *čuki
Comments: A Western isogloss, somewhat questionable phonetically. Unclear is -k- in TM and Mong. (*-g- would be expected). A possible solution is to reconstruct for all three subgroups a suffixed form *č`i̯ugu-kV.
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