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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`ap`i ( ~ *č`ep`a)
Meaning: a k. of horned animal
Russian meaning: вид рогатого животного
Turkic: *čepiĺ
Mongolian: *čaɣa
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. There are alternatives: the Mong. form can be compared with Evk. čenekū, čeŋek 'reindeer' (ТМС 2, 421), while the Turkic may be compared with Evk. čubukī, čē̂wakūn 'mountain ram' (ТМС 2, 410). On the whole, a rather obscure case: cf. Хелимский 2000, 286 on a possibility of the Mongolian word being borrowed < Sam.
Proto-Altaic: *č`are ( ~ -ŕ-, -o)
Meaning: bare, barefooted
Russian meaning: голый, босой
Mongolian: *čira-ma
Tungus-Manchu: *čara-ku
Comments: A Tung.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`àro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut off, tear off
Russian meaning: отрезать, отрывать
Turkic: *čar
Tungus-Manchu: *čari-
Korean: *čărɨ-
Japanese: *tàt-
Comments: Martin 229, АПиПЯЯ 76, ОСНЯ 1, 209. The Japanese form may be alternatively derived from PA *t`at`V q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ăǯV
Meaning: cheek, cheekbone
Russian meaning: щека, скула
Turkic: *čAj-na-
Mongolian: *ǯaǯi-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯaǯi-
Comments: Дыбо 5, Лексика 220. A Western isogloss. In Mong. and TM one has to presume an early assimilation (*ǯaǯi- < *čaǯi-).
Proto-Altaic: *č`ā́bu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sound, fame
Russian meaning: звук, слава
Turkic: *č(i)āb
Mongolian: *čuw
Tungus-Manchu: *čab-
Comments: Владимирцов 256, Poppe 44; despite Щербак 1997, 193, not borrowed in Turk. < Mong. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ā́jV ( ~ -ē-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sand, sandbar
Russian meaning: песок
Turkic: *čāj
Mongolian: *čeɣel
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Not quite reliable because of scarce attestation in Turkic (the form may actually have an Iranian origin).
Proto-Altaic: *č`ā̀ki
Meaning: a k. of coniferous tree
Russian meaning: вид хвойного дерева
Turkic: *čEket
Mongolian: *čigör-
Tungus-Manchu: *čāK-
Comments: EAS 63. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ā́mro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of small animal
Russian meaning: вид мелкого животного
Turkic: *čārba- (*čārma-)
Mongolian: *čindaga
Tungus-Manchu: *čamduk-
Comments: Дыбо 8, Лексика 166. A Western isogloss, with a specific development of the medial cluster *-mr-.
Proto-Altaic: *č`éč`í
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to press, squeeze
Russian meaning: давить, сжимать
Tungus-Manchu: *čeče-re-
Korean: *čìčɨ́r-
Japanese: *tíntí-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`eč`u
Meaning: flower
Russian meaning: цветок
Turkic: *čeček
Japanese: *tutu(n)si
Comments: A Turk.-Jpn. isogloss; not quite reliable. Cf. *č`[i]č`V: one cannot exclude that this is the same expressive root (*'sprout'), with some irregular developments.
Proto-Altaic: *č`egV(nV)
Meaning: a k. of insect
Russian meaning: вид насекомого
Mongolian: *čeɣV- / *čiɣV-
Tungus-Manchu: *čegene-
Korean: *čìnǝ́i
Comments: The TM and Kor. forms reflect a common *-n-suffixation.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ĕ́k`à ( ~ -i̯a-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to strike fire
Russian meaning: высекать огонь
Turkic: *č(i)ak-
Mongolian: *čaki-
Tungus-Manchu: *či(K)u- ( ~ -e-)
Korean: *čhắ-
Japanese: *ták-
Comments: KW 420, 424, Poppe 26, JOAL 99. Korean has a frequent vowel reduction between a stop and a fricative. Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 112 (TMN 3, 82: "Onomatopoetica").
Proto-Altaic: *č`èk`ù ( ~ *č`i̯ok`e, -k-)
Meaning: handle
Russian meaning: ручка, рукоять
Turkic: *čEkük / *čEküč
Korean: *čhái
Japanese: *tùkà
Comments: Korean has a usual vowel loss between a stop and a fricative.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ek`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: part of shoulder close to neck
Russian meaning: часть плеча около шеи
Turkic: *čekn
Mongolian: *čekerej
Comments: Дыбо 308; Дыбо 130-131, Лексика 238-239 (but Evk. čeke 'throat, palate' should rather be derived < *šek`a q. v.): A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ep`à
Meaning: rag
Russian meaning: тряпка
Turkic: *čepürek
Mongolian: *čoɣu-da-
Korean: *čapa- ( ~ -ă-)
Japanese: *tapai
Comments: Mong. *čoɣu-da- - with a secondary (usual) labialization < *čaɣu-da-. Cf. also *č`i̯op`a, from which this root is sometimes difficult to distinguish.
Proto-Altaic: *č`era ( ~ -o)
Meaning: snow, to freeze
Russian meaning: снег, замерзать
Turkic: *čar-
Mongolian: *čar
Comments: KW 422. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ḗbV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: branch, forked branch; staff
Russian meaning: ветка, разветвление; посох
Turkic: *čĀb-
Mongolian: *čib-
Tungus-Manchu: *čebu-(gan)
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. also *č`ipV, *č`ī́p`a.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ēk`V
Meaning: a k. of cloth
Russian meaning: вид ткани, одежды
Turkic: *čĒk-
Mongolian: *čegedeg
Tungus-Manchu: *čeKe
Korean: *čjǝ́k-
Comments: KW 426, SKE 27. A cultural term, but borrowing (either in Mong. < Turk. or in Manchu < Mong.) is hardly possible. The Kor. form is somewhat dubious (tone does not correspond to Turkic; perhaps we should regard it as an old loan < Manchu; if it is not, a reconstruction *č`ējk`V is possible). Mong. -g- speaks in favour of PA *-k-, but may be a result of assimilation (before -deg, like *ogo-da-su < *oko-da-su), thus (on Korean evidence) more probable is the reconstruction of *k`.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ḗp`u
Meaning: ulcer, furuncle
Russian meaning: нарыв, прыщ
Turkic: *čɨ̄pgan
Mongolian: *čijigan
Tungus-Manchu: *čepe
Korean: *čjūpók
Comments: Poppe 26 (Turc-Mong). Mong. cannot be borrowed < Turk. In PT a secondary vowel narrowing has occurred (probably *čɨ̄pgan < *čạ̄pɨgan); otherwise correspondences are quite regular. Note velar suffixation reflected in PT, Mong. and Kor. (PA *č`ēp`u-ka-).
Proto-Altaic: *č`ibe
Meaning: to twist, turn
Russian meaning: крутиться, извиваться
Turkic: *čebir-
Mongolian: *čüw
Tungus-Manchu: *čib-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 287. A Western isogloss; Mong. *čüw < *čiw with secondary assimilative labialization. The PA nature of the root is somewhat dubious because of its expressive meaning and the isolatedness of Evenki forms.
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