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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *čikŕo
Meaning: firm, strong
Russian meaning: крепкий, сильный
Turkic: *Tɨgra- / *Tɨgɨŕ
Mongolian: *čiɣirag
Tungus-Manchu: *diktu ( ~ ǯ-)
Korean: *čirk-
Japanese: *tíkàrà
Comments: Владимирцов 199, Poppe 15, Ozawa 121-123, JOAL 99, Miller 1985, 144-145. Mong. may be < Turk. (see Щербак 1997, 156), but not necessarily.
Proto-Altaic: *číńo
Meaning: power, ability
Russian meaning: сила, способность
Turkic: *dɨŋ
Mongolian: *čineɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯiŋ
Korean: *čɨ̄ń-
Japanese: *tíná-m-
Comments: Владимирцов 172. The Korean form speaks in favour of reconstructing palatal *-ń-; Turkic and Tungus reveal a secondary -ŋ- resulting from a suffixed form *číń(o)-gV ( = Mong. *čineɣe).
Proto-Altaic: *čĭŋV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to listen, consider
Russian meaning: слушать, соображать
Turkic: *dɨŋla- / *diŋle-
Mongolian: *čiŋla-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯiŋ-
Comments: Владимирцов 172. A Western isogloss. Mong. can be < Turk., see Щербак 1997, 156.
Proto-Altaic: *čipV ( ~ -b-)
Meaning: slow, sluggish
Russian meaning: медленный, медлительный
Mongolian: *čibda-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯibge
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *či̯adu ( ~ *či̯oda)
Meaning: a k. of ungulate animal
Russian meaning: вид копытного животного
Turkic: *T(i)adun
Mongolian: *dudura-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯudura
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *či̯ā́tu ( ~ *t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sweet, taste
Russian meaning: сладкий, вкус
Turkic: *dāt
Mongolian: *dadu-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯutī
Comments: See АПиПЯЯ 13, 14. A Western isogloss. The Turkic forms (where both the meanings 'to taste' and 'to get accustomed (*to taste)' are represented), provide a good link between TM *ǯutī- 'sweet' and Mong. *dadu- 'to get accustomed'. See also notes to *dasa.
Proto-Altaic: *či̯obe ( ~ *t-)
Meaning: ten
Russian meaning: десять
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯuba-n
Japanese: *tǝwǝ
Comments: JOAL 84. A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *či̯obeŕV ( ~-i̯abu-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: salt; bitter, acid
Russian meaning: соль; горький, кислый
Turkic: *dūŕ
Mongolian: *dabusu
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯujar-
Korean: *čjǝ̄r-
Japanese: *túrá-
Comments: Владимирцов 258, АПиПЯЯ 13, 19, 49-50, 70, 285, Дыбо 11. Mong. dabu-su regularly < *dabur-su; borrowing in Mong. < Turk. is absolutely improbable, despite Щербак 1997, 160. The Turk.-Mong. parallel is an old etymology (starting with Pelliot 1935, 231) which Doerfer (TMN 2, 510-511) tries in vain to refute. A small problem is the preservation of *-b- (one should rather expect *daɣu(r)-sun in Mong.), which should be probably explained by an old assimilation *či̯obeŕV- > *či̯opeŕV in pre-PM. For Jpn. one has to assume a rather universal semantic change 'bitter' > 'hard, unbearable'. Cf. perhaps also MKor. čùijǝ̀mí 'vinegar dregs'.
Proto-Altaic: *či̯ŏge
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to give, exchange
Russian meaning: давать, обменивать
Turkic: *dẹg-
Mongolian: *düji-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯugē-
Korean: *čù-
Japanese: *tai ( ~ *tia)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 13 (with a different Mong. parallel). Mong. *düji- has a secondary narrowing < *döji-; the early PJ form must have been *tǝjV, with a subsequent contraction.
Proto-Altaic: *či̯oke
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of small animal (squirrel, otter)
Russian meaning: вид мелкого животного (белка, выдра)
Turkic: *dEgiŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯuku-n
Korean: *čúi
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 14, Дыбо 7, Лексика 165. Voicing of -k- in PT must be due to early assimilation.
Proto-Altaic: *či̯òlú ( ~ t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: ice, hail
Russian meaning: лед, град
Turkic: *dolu
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯalka
Japanese: *tùrárá
Comments: Vocalism is not quite clear: in TM one would expect *ǯial-, but the existing forms point rather to *ǯal- (note, however, that TM *-ia- and -a- tend to get confused after affricates).
Proto-Altaic: *či̯ùmi
Meaning: thousand
Russian meaning: тысяча
Turkic: *Tümen
Korean: *čɨ́mɨ́n
Japanese: *ti
Comments: SKE 38. Despite TMN 2, 641 the Turk.-Kor. parallel seems quite acceptable. Jpn. *ti reflects a suffixed form *či̯um(i)-gV.
Proto-Altaic: *či̯uŕi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: even, straight
Russian meaning: ровный, прямой
Turkic: *düŕ
Mongolian: *čir-
Korean: *čɨ̀rɨ̀-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 13. The Mong. reflex is not quite certain: it is attested only in Kalm. and not quite satisfactory vocalically. The root is phonetically very close to *či̯úŕu 'string', and was obviously liable to contaminations (in particular, Jpn. *túrá 'row' may actually continue either root).
Proto-Altaic: *či̯úŕu
Meaning: string, to string
Russian meaning: веревка, нанизывать на веревку
Turkic: *diŕ-
Mongolian: *dürü-
Korean: *čur-
Japanese: *túrá
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 14, 77. Cf. also *či̯uŕi (with some contaminations possible).
Proto-Altaic: *či̯ŭru ( ~ -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to scratch
Russian meaning: царапать, скрести
Turkic: *dɨrŋa-k
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯurū-, *ǯura-n
Korean: *čūr
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 281,13; Дыбо 311-312, 323-324. Despite Doerfer MT 77, the TM forms are hardly borrowed from Mong. ǯiru-, which happens to have a quite different origin (see *ńi̯ăŕe). Cf. also *č`iŕV.
Proto-Altaic: *či̯ū́nu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: blood; spirit, breath
Russian meaning: кровь; дух, дыхание
Turkic: *dɨ̄n
Mongolian: *čisu
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯun-
Japanese: *tí
Comments: Ozawa 120-121, АПиПЯЯ 72, 92, 274. The Jpn. form may reflect a contraction of the suffixed *či̯ū́n(u)-gV, but since loss of *-n- is not attested elsewhere, one cannot exclude a monosyllabic reconstruction *či̯ū, with a suffix *-n added in Turkic and TM. Cf. also Mong. *činar 'quality, image' (see Владимирцов 172, Poppe 15, 69; in VEWT 478 and KW 441 considered to be borrowed < Uygh. tɨnar).
Proto-Altaic: *čŏĺe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: front, front part
Russian meaning: перед, передняя часть
Turkic: *döĺ
Mongolian: *döli
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯule
Korean: *čɨrǝ
Comments: KW 98 (Turk.-Mong.), SKE 35 (Kor.-Tung.), АПиПЯЯ 289.
Proto-Altaic: *čṓtakV ( ~ -ukV)
Meaning: pulp, mushroom; lip
Russian meaning: мякоть, гриб; губа
Turkic: *dōtak
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯudakta / *ǯedukte
Comments: Лексика 226. An interesting Turk.-Tung. isogloss: phonetically quite regular except secondary (assimilatory) voicing -t- > -d- in TM.
Proto-Altaic: *čŭ̀ra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to stand
Russian meaning: стоять
Turkic: *dur-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯur-
Korean: *čàrí
Japanese: *tàt-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 101, 277. Korean has a "verbal" low tone, showing that the noun is a deverbative (although the original verb is not attested).
Proto-Altaic: *čúrka ( ~ -i̯o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: swift stream, current
Russian meaning: быстрый поток, течение
Turkic: {*duruk 'clear, transparent (of water)'}
Mongolian: *dargil
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯurku
Japanese: *tákí, *tanki-t-
Comments: Ozawa 119-120, 241-242 (Jpn.-Mong.). A good common Altaic landscape term.
Total of 2805 records 141 page

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