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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *tòlu ( ~ ti̯ùlo)
Meaning: to spin, turn round
Russian meaning: вращаться, поворачиваться
Turkic: *dolga-
Korean: *tòr- / *tùr-
Japanese: *dǝ̀r-
Comments: Martin 245.
Proto-Altaic: *tṓj-
Meaning: four
Russian meaning: четыре
Turkic: *dȫrt
Mongolian: *dör-ben, *dö-čin
Tungus-Manchu: *dügin
Japanese: *dǝ-
Comments: EAS 146, KW 100, Владимирцов 360, Poppe 110, Ozawa 154-156, Murayama 1962, 108, JOAL 35-36, TMN 1, 329-330), АПиПЯЯ 71. In TMN 2, 608 Doerfer tries to deny the comparison with TM ("es gibt kein Lautgesetz mo. ö = tu. ü"), which is not justified.
Proto-Altaic: *tṓŕu
Meaning: birch bark, vessel made of birch bark
Russian meaning: береста, сосуд из бересты
Turkic: *Tōŕ
Mongolian: *duru-sun
Tungus-Manchu: *duri
Korean: *turǝi
Japanese: *túrú(m)pài
Comments: KW 103, TMN 2, 612 ("was nicht ganz unmöglich wäre"), Лексика 103.
Proto-Altaic: *túbù ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: end, edge
Russian meaning: конец, край
Mongolian: *daɣus-
Tungus-Manchu: *dubē
Korean: *tūih
Japanese: *túpí
Comments: SKE 275-276, АПиПЯЯ 71, Дыбо 12. Cf. perhaps Karakh. (MK) tuvur- 'to prick (ears)'.
Proto-Altaic: *tùdì ( ~ -o-)
Meaning: to sound, howl
Russian meaning: звучать, бормотать, выть
Mongolian: *düdüne-
Tungus-Manchu: *dudu-
Japanese: *tùtù-
Comments: ТМС 1, 220. An onomatopoeic root, but with good correspondences.
Proto-Altaic: *tŭ̀gì
Meaning: to pound
Russian meaning: колотить, молотить
Turkic: *düg-
Mongolian: *tügsi-
Tungus-Manchu: *dug-
Korean: *tìh-
Japanese: *tùk-
Comments: Mong. has t- due to contamination with tog-si- 'to hit, knock' q. v. ; Kor. has tìh- with irregular vowel (low tone is usual in verbs) due to contamination with tìk- 'to dip down, imprint' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *tújpè ( ~ d-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hill, top
Russian meaning: вершина
Mongolian: *dobu / *döbe
Tungus-Manchu: *dǖ- ( ~ *düb-)
Japanese: *(d)ípà
Comments: Medial -j- should be postulated to account for the vowel (*ü) in PTM and for the otherwise irregular fronting *u > i in Jpn. For a possible reflex in Turkic see under *t`ep`a.
Proto-Altaic: *tuju
Meaning: to listen, perceive
Russian meaning: слушать, воспринимать
Turkic: *duj-
Mongolian: *duɣul-
Tungus-Manchu: *duja
Japanese: *tuá-p-
Comments: The isolated Even parallel is somewhat dubious, but the rest of the forms are well explained by the original meaning 'perceive' (whence both 'listen' and 'ask') and correspond well to each other. {In Mong. cf. also WMo don-duɣ 'соображающий', donuj- 'осмысливать'; for Evn. duja 'noise' cf. Mong. düj 'возглас для подзыва собаки').}
Proto-Altaic: *tumi
Meaning: drum
Russian meaning: барабан
Turkic: *düm-
Mongolian: *düŋgür
Japanese: *tuntumi
Comments: An expressive root, reduplicated in Japanese.
Proto-Altaic: *túmu ( ~ č-, -i, i̯u-o, i̯a-u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cold, snot
Russian meaning: холод, насморк
Turkic: *dum
Japanese: *túm-
Comments: A Turk.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tuŋa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cold, frost
Russian meaning: холод, мороз
Turkic: *doŋ
Mongolian: *daɣara-
Tungus-Manchu: *doŋota
Comments: ТМС 1, 216, АПиПЯЯ 286, Дыбо 11. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *túŋì
Meaning: relative by marriage
Russian meaning: свойственник
Turkic: *düŋür
Tungus-Manchu: *duŋ-
Japanese: *túmà
Comments: The isolated Manchu parallel is somewhat dubious semantically (not a 'relative by marriage', but a coeval), but the Turkic and Jpn. forms correspond well to each other.
Proto-Altaic: *turi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: face
Russian meaning: лицо
Turkic: *dür
Mongolian: *düri
Tungus-Manchu: *duru-n
Japanese: *tura
Comments: KW 105, Владимирцов 165, EAS 51, Poppe 23, 82, Miller 1996, 151, АПиПЯЯ 71, Дыбо 12, Лексика 207 (but PT *jǖŕ is to be separated, despite all the above sources). The TM forms may be < Mong. (see Doerfer MT 76, Rozycki 65), but not necessarily so.
Proto-Altaic: *tùru ( ~ *ti̯ùro)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: crane
Russian meaning: журавль
Turkic: *durunja
Korean: *túrúmí
Japanese: *tùrû
Comments: Martin 229, Murayama 1962, 110, АПиПЯЯ 71, Лексика 173. Cf. also (phonetically unclear) Mong. toɣuriɣun 'crane' (KW 397).
Proto-Altaic: *tū́jk`ú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to make a sign
Russian meaning: делать знак
Turkic: *Tūkrag
Mongolian: *doki-
Tungus-Manchu: *duKū-
Korean: *tjǝk-
Japanese: *túnká-
Comments: All meanings are well explainable from the original 'make, produce a sign'; the diphthong -jǝ- in Korean is somewhat unexpected and makes us reconstruct PA *tū́jk`ú (otherwise *tū́k`u would serve just as well).
Proto-Altaic: *tū̀ĺdi
Meaning: to hear
Russian meaning: слышать
Turkic: *düĺ-ün-
Tungus-Manchu: *dōldī-
Korean: *tɨ̀d-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 48, 290. Korean has a "verbal" low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *tū̀ĺe
Meaning: clear sky, noon
Russian meaning: ясное небо, полдень
Turkic: *düĺ
Mongolian: *düli
Tungus-Manchu: *dōlā
Comments: Владимирцов 366, Лексика 79. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tū̀ĺe ( ~ -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bend down, fall
Russian meaning: наклоняться, падать
Turkic: *düĺ-
Mongolian: *döli-
Tungus-Manchu: *dōl-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tū̀lu ( ~ -o)
Meaning: barren
Russian meaning: бесплодная
Turkic: *dul(k)
Tungus-Manchu: *dūla-
Korean: *tur-
Comments: KW 409, TMN 3, 349.
Proto-Altaic: *tū́p`e ( ~ *ti̯ūp`i, *č-)
Meaning: bottom
Russian meaning: дно
Turkic: *dǖp
Mongolian: *dow-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. The relationship to TM *dō- 'to sit down (of birds)', suggested in ТМС 1, 211, is unclear; if it exists, we may be dealing here with an archaic case of *-p`-suffixation.
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