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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *ti̯ā́re
Meaning: narrow; short
Russian meaning: узкий; короткий
Turkic: *d(i)ār
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯir-
Korean: *tjǝ̀r-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 297.
Proto-Altaic: *ti̯ok`e
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to touch, reach
Russian meaning: трогать, достигать
Turkic: *dẹg-
Mongolian: *dökü-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss; not quite reliable, because in Turkic one has to suppose assimilative voicing (*dẹg- < *dẹk-). In Korean and Japanese the reflexes of the root could have merged with those of *tàk`u q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *ti̯ṓle
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Turkic: *d(i)ālak
Mongolian: *deliɣün
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯō(l)
Korean: *tira ( ~ č-)
Japanese: *(d)í ( ~ *(d)ǝ́-i)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 14, Лексика 279. Jpn. *(d)ǝ-i goes back to a suffixed form *ti̯ṓl(e)-gV ( = Mong. deli-ɣün).
Proto-Altaic: *ti̯ṓĺì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: stone
Russian meaning: камень
Turkic: *diāĺ
Mongolian: *čilaɣu
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯola
Korean: *tōrh
Japanese: *(d)ísì
Comments: EAS 49, 108, KW 444, Владимирцов 145, Poppe 15, 77, Poppe 1974, 133-134, Martin 243, Miller 1970, 129, Street 1980, 301, 1985, 646, АПиПЯЯ 37-38, 71, 92, 277, Дыбо 11, Мудрак Дисс. 196. Certainly not borrowed in Mong. from Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 154. Counterarguments against the etymology by Doerfer (TMN 2, 437-438) are not convincing.
Proto-Altaic: *ti̯ubu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: two
Russian meaning: два
Turkic: *TVbVr-
Mongolian: *ǯiwrin ~ *ǯuirin
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯube-
Korean: *tubu, *tuburh
Comments: Poppe 28 (Mong.-Tung.), Lee 1958, 113, АПиПЯЯ 19, 33, 292, Rozycki 128. In Mong. one would rather expect *č- in front of -i- as the result of palatalization of *t-; preservation of the voiced consonant may be due to the interaction of expected variants *čiwrin ~ *duirin. The root is no doubt a very archaic one; it is probably attested also in several common Altaic derivatives. Cf. PTM *du-dgu 'couple, spouses' = OJ t(w)otug- 'to marry' (*tub-tu-); PM *dab-ku- 'twice, double, layer' ( > Chag. tapqur, Evk. dapkur etc., see Poppe 1966, 195, TMN 2, 429, Doerfer MT 101), also reflecting a -i̯-less form like *tub-k`V-; PTM *ǯūpti (*ǯub(i)-pti) id.
Proto-Altaic: *ti̯ùke
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to pour
Russian meaning: лить
Turkic: *dök-
Korean: *tahi-
Japanese: *tùk-
Comments: Cf. also Evk. ǯik- 'to wash away (shores)', possibly < *ǯük- (see ТМС 1, 256).
Proto-Altaic: *ti̯ŭm(k)u
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: silent, calm
Russian meaning: тихий, спокойный
Turkic: *dɨm-
Mongolian: *düŋ-
Tungus-Manchu: *duŋk-
Comments: ОСНЯ 1, 223. A Western isogloss; cf. perhaps Jpn. tsumbo 'deaf'.
Proto-Altaic: *ti̯ū́ĺu ( ~ *č-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wedge, peg
Russian meaning: клин, колышек
Turkic: *dīĺ
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯul-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss; cf. perhaps also Mong. duldaj 'stick, staff'.
Proto-Altaic: *tī̀búlka
Meaning: a k. of blossoming bush
Russian meaning: вид цветущего кустарника
Turkic: *d(i)abɨlku
Mongolian: *čibaga
Tungus-Manchu: *dībekte
Japanese: *tùmpákì
Comments: In Turkic one has to suppose vowel metathesis in a trisyllabic word (*dabɨlku < *dɨbulka). An interesting common Altaic plant name.
Proto-Altaic: *tī̀du
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: elevation
Russian meaning: возвышенность
Tungus-Manchu: *dīdü ( ~ ǯ-)
Korean: *tùtǝ́n
Japanese: *tùtùmí
Comments: Lee 1958, 113 (Tung.-Kor.). An Eastern isogloss. The Korean form is aberrant in several respects (-u- instead of expected -ɨ-, -t- instead of expected -r-, low tone instead of expected high), and one may suspect it in being borrowed < Japanese.
Proto-Altaic: *tī̀k`i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to plant vertically
Russian meaning: сажать, ставить вертикально
Turkic: *dik-
Mongolian: *čike
Tungus-Manchu: *dīKē-
Comments: EAS 50, 150, KW 85, 439, Poppe 16. A Western isogloss. In Mong. we also have Kalm. dekǝ- 'to stick in; coire' (KW 85), which Ramstedt (ibid.) compares with the Turkic and TM word; if this were the true cognate, we would have to think that Mong. *čig, *čike is borrowed < Turkic (as suggested in TMN 2, 659). The poor attestation of Mong. deke-, however, raises doubts (so does the final -e in Mong. čike, hardly to be expected in a Turkic loanword), so the traditional comparison (Turk. *dik : Mong. *čike) might be the best solution after all.
Proto-Altaic: *tī́ri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thick, plenty
Russian meaning: толстый, обильный
Turkic: *dīri-
Mongolian: *čirgaɣu
Tungus-Manchu: *dir-
Japanese: *(d)ita-
Comments: Дыбо 13.
Proto-Altaic: *tógà ( ~ č-, -u-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: falcon
Russian meaning: сокол
Turkic: *dogan
Japanese: *táká
Comments: A Turk.-Jpn. isogloss. The root should be distinguished from *t`úbé q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *tògà ( ~ č-, -k-, -u-)
Meaning: wild, ferocious
Russian meaning: дикий, жестокий
Mongolian: *dog-si-
Japanese: *tàkià-
Comments: Ozawa 242, JOAL 68. A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss. In Turkic cf. perhaps Turkm. doGum 'courage'; Kirgh. tuɣulčuɣ 'courageous, skillful'; Oyr. tūragar 'wild, mad, ferocious'.
Proto-Altaic: *tógì ( ~ -u-, -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mound, dam
Russian meaning: насыпь, дамба
Tungus-Manchu: *dug[i]-
Korean: *tuk
Japanese: *túkà
Comments: Miller 1986, 54. An Eastern isogloss; cf. perhaps Chag. tögä-baš 'Steinplatte auf einem Grab'.
Proto-Altaic: *togV
Meaning: a k. of fish
Turkic: *Tog
Mongolian: *dogdur
Tungus-Manchu: *dukčā
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tok`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: base of a horn, callosity
Russian meaning: основание рога, мозоль
Turkic: *Tok
Mongolian: *duku
Tungus-Manchu: *dokta-
Japanese: *takua
Comments: The meaning 'base of a horn' attested in some Turkic languages is probably original and explains well the semantic development elsewhere ( > 'callosity'; 'forehead (of an animal)' etc.).
Proto-Altaic: *tok`V ( ~ -k-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to plait, weave
Russian meaning: плести, ткать
Turkic: *doku-
Tungus-Manchu: *duKu-
Korean: *tàh-, *th-ɨ̀r-
Comments: Дыбо 15.
Proto-Altaic: *tole
Meaning: quiet, languid
Russian meaning: спокойный, вялый
Turkic: *döle-
Mongolian: *döli-gen / *dölü-gen
Tungus-Manchu: *dulu-
Comments: ТМС 1, 223 (TM-Mong.), Дыбо 13. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tóle ( ~ -i̯o-, -i̯a-)
Meaning: progeny, generation
Russian meaning: потомство, поколение
Turkic: *döl
Japanese: *dǝ́
Comments: A Turkic-Jpn. isogloss; not quite reliable, because the Jpn. form can have many possible protoforms.
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