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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *teg[u]
Meaning: to make knots, tie to a hook
Russian meaning: завязывать узлы, привязывать к крюку
Turkic: *düg-
Mongolian: *degeɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *deg-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Turkic -ü- is quite strange here ( < *degü-?), so the Turkic match is somewhat dubious.
Proto-Altaic: *télki
Meaning: decking, duck-boards
Russian meaning: дощатый настил
Turkic: *Tel
Mongolian: *deleg
Tungus-Manchu: *delkē-
Korean: *tɨ̀rkuǝ̀r
Japanese: *(d)íká(n)ta
Comments: Jpn. and Kor. may reflect a common derivative *télki-rV (although the source of -u- in the second syllable in Korean is not quite clear). Most languages point to the original meaning 'board covering', probably 'duck-boards in a boat or raft' (with a secondary development > 'plank covering in a sleigh' in Turkic.
Proto-Altaic: *telV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to split, strike
Russian meaning: расщеплять, разбивать
Turkic: *del-
Mongolian: *dele-
Tungus-Manchu: *del-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *teĺV ?
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: female
Russian meaning: самка
Turkic: *diĺi
Tungus-Manchu: *delku-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss; dubious because of very scarce attestation in TM.
Proto-Altaic: *tĕ́mo
Meaning: to drip, soak
Russian meaning: капать, мокнуть
Turkic: *dam
Korean: *tằm-
Japanese: *támár-
Comments: In Turkic one would rather expect *dạm: perhaps the variants *dam and *dɨm reflect original *dạm with later interdialectal borrowings.
Proto-Altaic: *tèmò ( ~ -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: root; strength, soul
Russian meaning: корень; сила, душа
Turkic: *dạmor
Mongolian: *daŋ-gi ( < *dam-gi)
Japanese: *tàmà
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 285, Лексика 264-265. Mong. tamir 'sinew; strength, force' is borrowed from Turkic (to judge from its phonology; see Щербак 1997, 153); but the comparison with daŋgi 'root' may be accepted only if one assumes a secondary assimilation *dam-gi > daŋgi.
Proto-Altaic: *téŋgu
Meaning: axle, spindle
Russian meaning: ось, веретено
Turkic: *deŋgil
Korean: *thòŋ
Comments: A Turk.-Kor. isogloss; Mong. teŋkeleg 'axle' is probably < Turkic. Kor. *thòŋ < *tòŋh.
Proto-Altaic: *tĕ́p`é
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to wave, flap; fly
Russian meaning: махать; летать
Turkic: *depre-
Mongolian: *debi-
Tungus-Manchu: *dep(-si)- / *dapsi-
Japanese: *tǝ́mp-
Comments: KW 90, Poppe 23, 45, Ozawa 247-248, Miller 1985, 150, 1985a, 82, ОСНЯ 1, 217-218, АПиПЯЯ 110, 275. Borrowing in TM from Mong. (Doerfer MT 117) is hardly acceptable.
Proto-Altaic: *tĕ́re ( ~ -o)
Meaning: phlegm, secretion
Russian meaning: слизь, выделения
Turkic: *dẹr
Tungus-Manchu: *derbe-
Japanese: *dǝ́ntá-ri, -rai
Comments: The TM and Jpn. forms may be alternatively compared with PT *jạr 'saliva' (see ЭСТЯ 4, 134).
Proto-Altaic: *tert`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to pull
Russian meaning: тянуть
Turkic: *dart-
Mongolian: *tata-
Tungus-Manchu: *derde-
Comments: EAS 123, KW 384. A Western isogloss. Mong. cannot be < Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 154, and the Turk.-Mong. match cannot be rejected on phonetic grounds, despite Doerfer TMN 2, 437. However, in this case we must suppose a secondary assimilation in Mong.: tata- < *data-.
Proto-Altaic: *tèt`o ( ~ -a, -u)
Meaning: swamp, water pool
Russian meaning: болото, пруд
Turkic: *TAdgun
Tungus-Manchu: *detu
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tḗ
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to say, sound
Russian meaning: говорить, звучать
Turkic: *dē-
Mongolian: *dawu-
Tungus-Manchu: *de(b)-
Comments: A Western isogloss. One of several monosyllabic verbal roots.
Proto-Altaic: *tḗla
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to become loose, faint, tire
Russian meaning: расслабляться, уставать
Turkic: *dāl-
Tungus-Manchu: *del(u)-
Korean: *tarh-
Japanese: *tar(a)-
Comments: A good common Altaic verbal root.
Proto-Altaic: *tēlo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wild, mad, dumb
Russian meaning: дикий, безумный, глупый
Turkic: *dẹ̄l(b)ü-
Tungus-Manchu: *dele-
Comments: Дыбо 12. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tḗma
Meaning: in vain, (scarcely) sufficient
Russian meaning: напрасный, (едва) достаточный
Turkic: *dēmin
Mongolian: *demej, *dömü-
Tungus-Manchu: *dem-
Korean: *tāmắi-n
Japanese: *támá
Comments: Martin 240 (Kor.-Jpn.), ТМС 1, 234.
Proto-Altaic: *tḕrì
Meaning: surface, skin; color
Russian meaning: поверхность, кожа; цвет
Turkic: *dẹri
Mongolian: *čiraj
Tungus-Manchu: *dēre
Japanese: *(d)ìrǝ̀
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 284, Лексика 383.
Proto-Altaic: *tēru ( ~ č-)
Meaning: to gather, collect
Russian meaning: собирать
Turkic: *dēr-
Mongolian: *dar-ta-
Japanese: *tùtuàp-
Comments: Low tone in Jpn. is irregular (but see above on dialectal reflexes of *tútúap-).
Proto-Altaic: *tḕtu
Meaning: respect, care
Russian meaning: уважение, забота
Turkic: *det-
Mongolian: *čida-
Tungus-Manchu: *dēdu-
Japanese: *tùtù-
Comments: Tungus-Manchu has -d- as a result of regular assimilation after *d- (cf. *tū́ti and *dē-du- 'lie' < *dē-tV).
Proto-Altaic: *tilV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: tongue; voice
Russian meaning: язык; голос
Turkic: *dɨl / *dil
Tungus-Manchu: *dilga-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 284, Мудрак Дисс. 38, 70, Лексика 228. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tire
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to sink, enter
Russian meaning: погружаться, входить
Turkic: *deriŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *diri-
Korean: *tɨ́r-
Japanese: *(d)ír-
Comments: Martin 231. High tone in Kor. is quite exceptional for a verb root and irregular.
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