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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *tàńo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to love, long for
Russian meaning: любить, стремиться к
Tungus-Manchu: *dańa-la-
Korean: *tā̆ń-
Japanese: *tànuà-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tapV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hurry, gallop
Russian meaning: спешить, скакать
Turkic: *dabra-
Mongolian: *dab-
Tungus-Manchu: *dab-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 3, 114. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tara
Meaning: swelling, hardening, tumour
Russian meaning: опухоль, затвердение
Mongolian: *dar-
Tungus-Manchu: *darga
Japanese: *tari
Comments: The root is not widely attested, but seems quite reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *tăra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of plant, reed
Russian meaning: вид растения, тростника
Turkic: *dạrɨ-g
Mongolian: *darki
Tungus-Manchu: *daragan
Korean: *tār
Comments: Lee 1958, 107 (TM: Kor.), Дыбо 10. PT *dạrɨ-g is usually regarded as derived < *TArɨ- 'to cultivate (ground)' (see under *t`i̯òra) which is not excluded.
Proto-Altaic: *tā̀bi
Meaning: bad wind, infectious disease
Russian meaning: вредный ветер, заразная болезнь
Turkic: *dabul
Mongolian: *düjiren
Tungus-Manchu: *dā(b)-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Mong. *düji-ren < *dejü-ren, with a frequent metathesis of labialization.
Proto-Altaic: *tā̀bú
Meaning: to endure, obey
Russian meaning: терпеть, подчиняться
Mongolian: *daɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *dābu-
Japanese: *tùmpúnai
Comments: The root reveals quite regular correspondences and is semantically plausible (Jpn. 'servant' = 'one who obeys, endures').
Proto-Altaic: *tā́de
Meaning: trap, to obstruct
Russian meaning: ловушка, загораживать
Turkic: *dɨ̄d-
Mongolian: *čidör
Tungus-Manchu: *dad-
Korean: *tǝt
Comments: Final -čh in Kor. orthography is probably secondary, as in a number of other cases; for Kor. SKE notes also a variant tot. Cf. also Oroch toti 'trap' (ТМС 2, 201) < Kor.?
Proto-Altaic: *tā̀jV
Meaning: big, good
Russian meaning: большой, хороший
Turkic: *daja-gu
Mongolian: *daja-
Tungus-Manchu: *dāji
Comments: Дыбо 12. A Western isogloss, rather unreliable: the etymology is acceptable if the TM forms are not < Chinese.
Proto-Altaic: *tā́jV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: elder in-law, elder relative
Russian meaning: старший свойственник, родственник
Turkic: *dāj-
Tungus-Manchu: *dā
Japanese: *dia ( ~ *dai)
Comments: Cf. Bur. Olkh. dajdaj 'auntie'.
Proto-Altaic: *tā̀ĺ[o]
Meaning: mat, mattress
Russian meaning: циновка, матрац
Turkic: *döĺe-
Tungus-Manchu: *dāli
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss. The semantic match is perfect, but front row vocalism in Turkic is unclear (*doĺ- would be expected). {Cf. WMo dolu 'bast, bark'}.
Proto-Altaic: *tā́lV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to lick
Russian meaning: лизать
Turkic: *dāla-
Mongolian: *dol[u]ɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *dala-
Comments: EAS 50-51, Poppe 22, 74, Дыбо 13, Мудрак Дисс. 186; TMN 4, 186 ("lautgesetzlich unwahrscheinlich"). A Western isogloss. The Turk. reflex of the root is usually assumed to be *jālga- 'to lick' - which, however, also matches very well PA *ǯā́lV 'saliva, swallow' and should be rather attributed there. In Pre-Turk. we have to postulate a semantic shift 1) 'lick' > 'bite'; 2) 'saliva(te)' > 'lick'.
Proto-Altaic: *tāŋa
Meaning: shelf
Russian meaning: полка
Tungus-Manchu: *dāŋsa
Japanese: *táná
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss; seems plausible, despite irregular tone correspondence. Cf. Chuv. tiŋgǝl, teŋgǝl 'bench'.
Proto-Altaic: *tā̀ŋo
Meaning: pig
Russian meaning: свинья
Turkic: *doŋuŕ
Tungus-Manchu: *dāŋu-
Korean: *to'a-
Comments: SKE 272, EAS 141, Дыбо 9.
Proto-Altaic: *tā́p`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to stamp, press
Russian meaning: топтать, давить
Turkic: *dāp-
Mongolian: *dabta-
Tungus-Manchu: *dap-
Comments: Poppe 104, Menges 1982, 105, Дыбо 13. A Western isogloss. There exists also a not quite reliable variant *t`abi id. (Mong. tab 'clinch, rivet'; TM *tabi- 'to forge' (ТМС 2, 149, with yet another variant *tabi-ti- > *tapti- / *tipti- id., see ibid. and ТМС 2, 186).
Proto-Altaic: *tā̀ro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to stretch, spread
Russian meaning: растягивать
Turkic: *dar-
Mongolian: *dar-
Tungus-Manchu: *dār-
Korean: *tăr-
Comments: Лексика 256, Lee 1958, 107 (Kor.-TM). Cf. *t`ájri.
Proto-Altaic: *tā́rV
Meaning: follow, follow in a row
Russian meaning: следовать, располагаться рядом
Turkic: *dārɨ-
Mongolian: *daraɣa
Tungus-Manchu: *dā-, *dara-n
Comments: EAS 51, Poppe 22, 79. A Western isogloss. The Jpn. reflex could have merged with *či̯úŕu q. v. TM *daran can be borrowed < Mong. (see Doerfer MT 73), but *dā- (with preservation of length in a monosyllabic stem after the loss of -r-) is certainly genuine.
Proto-Altaic: *tèbú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: pelvis, lower part of body
Russian meaning: таз, нижняя часть тела
Tungus-Manchu: *debu(kī)
Japanese: *tùmpì
Comments: A Tung.-Jap. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tēga
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: high; top, mountain
Russian meaning: высокий, верх, гора
Turkic: *dāg
Mongolian: *deɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *deg-
Korean: *tǝ-
Japanese: *tàkà-
Comments: Poppe 58, 89 (Mong.-Tung.; on Turk. *jẹg- see under *di̯òge), SKE 260, EAS 51, 145, Цинциус 1972, 4 (but ТМ *dǖ 'top, above' cannot belong here for phonetic reasons), Miller 1985, 143, АПиПЯЯ 283. TM cannot be borrowed from Mong., despite Doerfer MT 20, Rozycki 58. Korean parallels for Jpn. taka-, take in Martin 236 are improbable; but cf. also Kor. thjǝ 'up' in compounds, see SKE 48; another old derivative may be Kor. tòt- 'to rise' = Mong. degde-]. A different etymology proposed for PT *dāg is the comparison with WMong. tajiɣa 'forest' (see e.g. VEWT 454). The etymology as such cannot be accepted (because of the wrong correspondence PT *d- : Mong. t-), but Turkic may in fact have merged two originally different roots - which would explain an abnormal correspondence of Turkic long vowel to PJ low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *tègà ( ~ -o)
Meaning: mushroom
Russian meaning: гриб
Tungus-Manchu: *degunŋēkte
Japanese: *tàkài
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tegá (/*t`egá)
Meaning: round
Russian meaning: круглый
Turkic: *deg- / *dög- / *dog-
Mongolian: *tög/körig
Korean: *thɨ- / *thǝ-
Japanese: *tánka
Comments: Poppe 14, АПиПЯЯ 40-41, 285 (with some confusion of this root and *t`òŋké q. v.). An expressive root with some violation of correspondences; but borrowing in Mong. from Turkic is hardly acceptable, despite Щербак 1997, 154. In Mong., a variant *toɣ- may be present in *toɣuri- 'go round' (MMong. (SH) to'ori-, KW 408, Dag. tōri-; > Man. torgi-, ТМС 2, 204), tojira- id.; a variant *dug- in WMong. duɣuj, Khalkha duguj, Kalm. duɣu 'wheel, ring' (L 271, KW 101), whence Tur. dial. toɣaj, Kum., KBalk. toɣaj 'ring, part of wheel hoop'. Cf. also PA *t`ŏk`V 'curved', also a possible source of contaminations.
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