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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ū̀jò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thorn, (pine) needle
Russian meaning: колючка, (хвойная) иголка
Turkic: *sojagu
Mongolian: *sojuɣa
Tungus-Manchu: *šǖje
Korean: *sāi
Japanese: *sǝ̀jà
Comments: EAS 72, KW 329, SKE 219.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ū̀po
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to twist, twisted threads
Russian meaning: сучить, вить, скрученные нитки
Turkic: *sub-luk (?)
Mongolian: *subu-
Tungus-Manchu: *šǖba
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. *suba, *sĭ̀bi.
Proto-Altaic: *šī́k`i / *šī́k`-di
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: urine, to urinate
Russian meaning: моча, мочиться
Turkic: *sīk
Mongolian: *siɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *šiKē-n
Korean: *stòŋ
Japanese: *sitǝ (~-ua)
Comments: KW 355, Владимирцов 198, Poppe 31, 62, АПиПЯЯ 17, Мудрак Дисс. 40-41, 44. Irregular voicing in Mong. can be explained by the root's expressive nature. Cf. also Mong. siǯiŋ 'a person urinating in his bed' - probably reflecting the derivative *šī́gdi < *šī́k`di, attested also in Turkic, TM, Korean and Japanese.
Proto-Altaic: *šī̀rV ( ~ -ŕ-)
Meaning: to melt
Russian meaning: плавить
Mongolian: *siri-
Tungus-Manchu: *šīri-
Comments: EAS 72, 112, Мудрак Дисс. 44, Лексика 411. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss (but cf. also OUygh. serit- 'to melt (butter)').
Proto-Altaic: *šŏ́mo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to dive, submerge, scoop
Russian meaning: нырять, погружаться, черпать
Turkic: *čom- / čöm-
Mongolian: *čomu
Tungus-Manchu: *šom-
Korean: *sằm-
Japanese: *sǝ́má-
Comments: SKE 21, EAS 64, 141.
Proto-Altaic: *šŏŋe ( ~ -i)
Meaning: deep, hollow
Russian meaning: глубокий, полый
Turkic: *čöŋ-
Mongolian: *čoŋg- / *čöŋk-
Tungus-Manchu: *šoŋ-
Comments: KW 428, 430. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *šop`é
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: freckles, spots
Russian meaning: веснушки, пятна
Turkic: *čap-, *čopur
Mongolian: *čob, *čow-kur
Japanese: *sǝmpa-
Comments: KW 429, Владимирцов 255. Cf. also Neg. čaw, čawụ 'rash' ( < Mong.?). An expressive root, with a number of contaminations and irregularities.
Proto-Altaic: *tằbà ( ~ -p-)
Meaning: a k. of fish
Russian meaning: вид рыбы
Mongolian: *dabka
Tungus-Manchu: *dabā
Japanese: *tàpì
Comments: For Jpn. cf. alternatively TM *tab(u) (ТМС 2, 149) or *topV (ТМС 2, 198).
Proto-Altaic: *tabu
Meaning: trade, barter
Russian meaning: торговля, обмен
Turkic: *dab-
Mongolian: *daɣ-
Korean: *tòbɨ́i
Japanese: *tùpìjái
Comments: An interesting common Altaic economical term. Let us note, however, that non-standard affixation in Japanese, as well as irregular tone correspondence, may suggest a borrowing from Korean.
Proto-Altaic: *tagi
Meaning: complete
Russian meaning: полный, завершать
Turkic: *degül
Mongolian: *deɣüren
Tungus-Manchu: *dagu- ~ -b-
Comments: KW 107. A Western isogloss. All forms reflect a morphological derivative *tagi-gu(r/l) (which explains both labialization in the second syllable and front row in Mong.). The Turkic form deserves special comment: Ramstedt 1924 derived it from *tüke- `be exhausted' (see under *t`ukì), i.e. "being exhausted, having come to an end" = "is not". The semantic derivation seems quite probable, but PT *degül is phonetically not derivable from *tüke-; it appears rather to be derived from an otherwise unattested PT *degü- < PA *tagi, but with the same semantic shift. There is yet another possibility available: regarding -(ü)l in Turkic as a remnant of the negative particle = PM *ülü `not', i.e. *degül = "not filled, incomplete".
Proto-Altaic: *tago
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sharp, to cut
Russian meaning: острый, резать
Turkic: *dogra-
Mongolian: *daɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *da(ga)-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *tagù
Meaning: root, grass root
Russian meaning: корень, корень травы
Turkic: *TAgna
Mongolian: *degne- / *dagna-
Tungus-Manchu: *daga
Japanese: *tuku-nai
Comments: A designation for some root-crop or grass root. Mong. deg-ne-, Karakh. taɣ-na (although its PT antiquity is somewhat dubious, see above) may reflect a common derivative *tagù-nV. The resemblance of Jpn. tsuku-ne also may be not accidental (although synchronically -ne is, of course, analysable as ne 'root').
Proto-Altaic: *taja
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to lean on
Russian meaning: прислоняться, опираться
Turkic: *daja-
Mongolian: *daji- (?)
Tungus-Manchu: *daja-
Japanese: *tajǝ-r- ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 71. The Mong. form is somewhat dubious here for semantic reasons. Cf. perhaps also MKor. tái- 'mast' ( < 'stick, prop').
Proto-Altaic: *táke ( ~ d-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: snake, lizard
Russian meaning: змея
Tungus-Manchu: *dakV (?)
Korean: *tòirjòŋ
Japanese: *tǝ́ká-
Comments: Basically a Kor.-Jpn. isogloss; the Tungus parallel is dubious.
Proto-Altaic: *tàk`u
Meaning: to attach, touch, reach
Russian meaning: прикреплять, трогать, достигать
Turkic: *dAk-
Mongolian: *duku-
Tungus-Manchu: *dak-sa-
Korean: *tàh-
Japanese: *tùk-
Comments: A secure common Altaic root.
Proto-Altaic: *tắĺbà
Meaning: other side, outer side
Russian meaning: другая сторона, внешняя сторона
Turkic: *daĺ
Tungus-Manchu: *dalba
Korean: *tàră-
Japanese: *dǝ́sǝ̀
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 76. Jpn. has *-ǝ- instead of *-a- because of bad compatibility of *a and *ǝ in PJ. {Cf. WMo daliji- 'lean to one side', dali-, dalbi- 'awry' etc.}.
Proto-Altaic: *tàĺbe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: harness
Russian meaning: упряжь
Turkic: *duĺa-
Mongolian: *delbeg
Japanese: *dǝ̀sǝ̀p-
Comments: In Turk. one would expect *-ɨ-; the reflex -u- is probably due to the effect of the original labial in -ĺb-. Note that some forms (Tat., Bashk., Yak.) actually reflect *-ɨ-, so perhaps for PT one should rather assume here a form like *dɨĺo-.
Proto-Altaic: *talo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wing, shoulderblade
Russian meaning: крыло, лопатка
Mongolian: *dalu, *dali
Korean: *tằr'ái
Japanese: *tà-i
Comments: The Japanese word may belong here if it goes back to *tal(V)-gV ( = MKor. tằr'ái, but tone correspondence is irregular).
Proto-Altaic: *tál[u]
Meaning: to be together
Russian meaning: быть вместе
Turkic: *delim
Mongolian: *dali-
Tungus-Manchu: *dali-
Korean: *tằrí-, *tăr-m-
Japanese: *túrá-
Comments: EAS 110, SKE 257, Martin 225. Vocalism is insecure (Kor.-Jpn. point rather to *tólu).
Proto-Altaic: *tằnŋù
Meaning: to bind, rope
Russian meaning: связывать, веревка
Turkic: *daŋ-
Tungus-Manchu: *daŋ-
Korean: *tan
Japanese: *tùnà
Comments: SKE 254-255, ЭСТЯ 3, 146. Cf. *t`úŋi.
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