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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *š[i̯à]mì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: island; forest
Russian meaning: остров; лес
Turkic: *simek
Tungus-Manchu: *šumi ( ~ č-)
Korean: *sjǝ̄m
Japanese: *sìmà
Comments: EAS 155, Martin 234, Miller 1976, 370-371, 1979b, 17-31, Martin 1996, 35. The parallel seems quite plausible (on a similar interchange between "island" and "forest" see, e.g., under *ā́rV), but vocalism raises some doubts. The reconstruction *ši̯àmi is possible if one assumes PT *simek < *semek (which is quite possible, because the word is only attested in OUygh. and may have actually been semek), and PTM *šumi < *šimu (cf. the Udehe (An.) form simb́o - perhaps archaic).
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ā̀mu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sack
Russian meaning: мешок
Turkic: *sAmar
Mongolian: *sumal
Tungus-Manchu: *šūm-
Korean: *sjǝ́m
Comments: PKE 176, KW 337. {Unclear is Manch. samara 'big wooden bowl'.}
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ā̀t`ì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to set fire, burn
Russian meaning: зажигать, жечь
Mongolian: *sita-
Tungus-Manchu: *šāta (~č-)
Korean: *stāi-
Japanese: *sitǝ-ki
Comments: Mong. s- points to a following front vowel or diphthong, so one should reconstruct *ši̯ā-; in TM *-ā- and -ia- are frequently neutralized after a palatal. Jpn. *sitǝki = Kor. *stǝ́k; both forms reflect a derivative with a velar suffix (*ši̯āt`i-k`V 'smth. burned, baked'); borrowing Jpn. < Kor. or Kor. < Jpn. is not excluded (see Martin 1996, 45).
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯óbi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wrinkle, gills
Russian meaning: морщина, складка, жабры
Tungus-Manchu: *šoba- ( ~ -p-)
Japanese: *síwá
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss. Cf. also Kalm. söb, söwö̆ 'wart' quoted in Владимирцов 1912, 213.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯òče
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hair (of head), feather
Russian meaning: волос, перо
Turkic: *s(i)ač
Tungus-Manchu: *šoša-
Korean: *číčh
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 287, Лексика 197. Kor. has an assimilation, usual for roots of this type; Manchu also demonstrates an assimilation (šoša- < *šosa- which would be regularly expected).
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ogo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cold
Russian meaning: холодный
Turkic: *sogɨ-k
Tungus-Manchu: *šig-
Korean: *sik-
Japanese: *sǝjǝ
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 281, Дыбо 11. Other comparisons of the above roots (Poppe 61, KW 335, VEWT 425a, SKE 233,240) are quite unreliable. The Kor. form sik- may go back to *sig-Vk- (cf. Turk. *sogɨk); a similar prototype can explain Manchu šaxurun < *šig-ak-urun. It is also interesting to note WMong. (L 658) saɣsurɣa 'hoar-frost' ( < *sug-sarga or *suɣa-surga) {and PT *sạgu-k}.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ŏju
Meaning: to skin, peel
Russian meaning: сдирать кожу, шкуру
Turkic: *soj-
Mongolian: *siɣal-
Tungus-Manchu: *čī- ( ~ *šī-) ( < *šij-)
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯op`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: claw, to claw
Russian meaning: коготь, хватать когтями
Mongolian: *sabur
Tungus-Manchu: *šopa-
Comments: Мудрак Дисс. 41. Cf. *sép`a.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ṓča
Meaning: a k. of metal
Russian meaning: вид металла
Turkic: *siāč
Mongolian: *čas
Tungus-Manchu: *šušu
Comments: Лексика 406. A Western isogloss. Mong. and TM have an assimilation (Mong. *sač > *čač > *čas, TM *šusu > *šušu), usual in roots of this type.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ṓč`ko
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: young of domestic animals
Russian meaning: детеныш домашних животных
Turkic: *čōčka
Tungus-Manchu: *šičukta
Korean: *sàskí
Comments: Дыбо 9.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ṑgV
Meaning: juice
Russian meaning: сок
Mongolian: *siɣü-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *šūkse
Korean: *skúr
Comments: Владимирцов 199, АПиПЯЯ 17. Korean has a usual vowel reduction between a stop and a consonant.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ṑlí
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: juice, fluid
Russian meaning: сок, жидкость
Turkic: *söl
Mongolian: *silö
Tungus-Manchu: *šōla
Japanese: *sìrú
Comments: EAS 155, Ozawa 111, Murayama 1962, 110, Мудрак Дисс. 41. The Turkic vocalism is quite irregular, probably due to contamination with *si̯ūli 'gall, pus' q. v. (a similar merger occurred in PJ).
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ṑŋe
Meaning: scoop, vessel
Russian meaning: черпак, сосуд
Turkic: *seŋek
Mongolian: *sinaga
Tungus-Manchu: *šōŋ-
Comments: A Western isogloss. One should also mention seŋgesn 'drinking vessel' (KW 410), either an old variant or a modified Turkic loanword.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ṑri ( ~ *ši̯ā̀ro)
Meaning: stake, pole
Russian meaning: кол, шест
Turkic: *s(i)ar-ča
Mongolian: *siro
Tungus-Manchu: *šōra
Comments: EAS 71, SKE 235, Poppe 30 (with some confusion of this root and {*si̯ṓjru} q. v.). A Western isogloss; but cf. notes to *seri.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯uga(lV)
Meaning: bucket
Russian meaning: ведро
Turkic: *sugu
Mongolian: *saɣulga
Tungus-Manchu: *šugle-
Comments: A Western isogloss, with some vocalic irregularities (the reconstruction *šuga would contradict, however, the consonant reflex *s- in Turkic and Mongolian). Cf. *sŭ́ku.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ŭk`u
Meaning: sharp instrument
Russian meaning: острый инструмент
Mongolian: *süke
Tungus-Manchu: *šuK-
Japanese: *súkí
Comments: The etymology seems plausible, although the precise meaning of the root in PA is not quite clear (some sharp instrument used for carving, chopping or ploughing).
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯úp`ù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to suck, hold in mouth
Russian meaning: сосать, держать во рту
Turkic: *sɨp-
Mongolian: *siɣü-
Tungus-Manchu: *šupa- (~č-)
Korean: *sp-ắr-
Japanese: *súp-
Comments: Whitman 1985, 181, 233 (Kor.-Jpn.). Korean has a usual vowel reduction between a fricative and a stop.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ŭ́r[e]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rub, polish
Russian meaning: тереть, полировать
Turkic: *sür(-t)-
Mongolian: *sürči-
Tungus-Manchu: *šürü- (/*šurü-)
Korean: *sɨ̀rh-
Japanese: *súr-
Comments: SKE 238. Mong. may be < Turk., see Щербак 1997, 198. The genuine reflex may be Mong. *sir- (Khalkha šürge-, Kalm. šürgǝ- 'to rub off', WMong. sirgü-, KW 371; Khalkha širǖn, Kalm. šürǖn, WMong. sireɣün 'rough, shaggy'; WMong. sirbe- 'to sweep') - although the -i- vowel here is not quite clear. The root generally displays some variation between *ši̯ŭ́re and *ši̯ŭ́ru.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ŭŕu
Meaning: to leak, ooze
Russian meaning: протекать, просачиваться
Turkic: *sɨŕ-
Mongolian: *sir-
Tungus-Manchu: *čurgī- ( ~ š-)
Comments: Мудрак Дисс. 44-45. A Western isogloss; cf. *si̯ŭ̀ŕi, *si̯òri.
Proto-Altaic: *ši̯ŭru
Meaning: beads
Russian meaning: бусы, бисер
Turkic: *sɨrɨčga
Mongolian: *sirü
Tungus-Manchu: *čuri- / *čurē- ( ~ š-)
Comments: A Western isogloss.
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