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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *sugá
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of water-bird
Russian meaning: вид водоплавающей птицы
Tungus-Manchu: *sugen ( ~ -b-)
Korean: *sói
Japanese: *sankí
Comments: An Eastern isogloss. Cf. Karakh. sügič 'a k. of bird' (?) (EDT 819).
Proto-Altaic: *súgò ( ~ -o-)
Meaning: inside, deep inside
Russian meaning: внутри, в глубине
Turkic: *soglɨ-
Mongolian: *suɣu(wu)
Tungus-Manchu: *sug-
Korean: *so'ok
Japanese: *sǝ́kǝ́
Comments: Martin 247 (Kor.-Jpn.). It is hard to choose between *-u- and *-o-: Turkic and Korean evidence is not decisive (in Turkic - only MK; in Kor. so'ok could well be an assimilation < *să'ok).
Proto-Altaic: *sugú ( ~ -o-)
Meaning: a k. of weed
Russian meaning: вид сорной травы
Mongolian: *suji-ka
Tungus-Manchu: *suga-kta
Korean: *sɨŋ'a
Japanese: *sunkai, *suKaN-
Comments: ТМС 2, 105, Doerfer MT 145. Cf. also Kalm. soɣǝ 'a k. of big plant; a k. of reed' (KW 329). In the Kor.-Jpn. area there may be some confusion between the reflexes of this root and PA *sokŋV 'onion': Kor. sɨŋ'a and modern Jpn. forms like sukampo and suiba may actually go back to the latter.
Proto-Altaic: *suji ( ~ z-, si̯uju)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sour
Russian meaning: кислый
Tungus-Manchu: *suje-
Korean: *sɨ̀i-, *sūi-
Japanese: *sù-
Comments: Martin 242. An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sùjli
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: green plants, edible plants
Russian meaning: зелень, съедобные растения
Turkic: *suli / *süli
Mongolian: *söl
Tungus-Manchu: *sol-gi
Korean: *súi
Comments: Medial *-j- should be reconstructed to explain loss of *-l- in Kor. The root seems to be a Wanderwort (see Аб. 3, 194-195, Cтеблин-Каменский 1972, 31, NCED 965), but may be reconstructable for PA.
Proto-Altaic: *sŭ́ku
Meaning: to scoop, bucket
Russian meaning: черпать, ведро
Turkic: *sogur-
Mongolian: *sugu-
Tungus-Manchu: *soKa-
Korean: *sok-kori
Japanese: *súkúp-
Comments: KW 336, Дыбо 15. Cf. *ši̯uga(lV) (with possible contaminations).
Proto-Altaic: *suku ( ~ z-, -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fish
Russian meaning: вид рыбы
Mongolian: *sogoču
Tungus-Manchu: *sugǯansa
Japanese: *sukai
Comments: The comparison with Jpn. sakana 'fish' in JOAL 98 should certainly be rejected (the only meaning of sakana attested in OJ is "food (vegetables) eaten with sake", thus the modern meaning 'fish' is obviously secondary). Cf. *sàk`ò.
Proto-Altaic: *suk`e
Meaning: branches, tamarisk
Russian meaning: ветви, тамариск
Turkic: *süksük
Mongolian: *sukaj
Tungus-Manchu: *suK-
Korean: *sak-
Comments: The Turkic and Mongolian forms basically denote 'tamarisk' or 'tamarisk branches', but whether this meaning was original is not quite clear. Perhaps the root just denoted dry branches (used basically as firewood).
Proto-Altaic: *suk`ì ( ~ *š-, *z-, *sik`u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: village
Russian meaning: деревня
Korean: *sɨ́k-
Japanese: *suki
Comments: A Kor.-Jpn. isogloss. Suffixation in Korean is not quite clear: perhaps a compound with ko'ăr 'district' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *suma
Meaning: nose, part of nose
Russian meaning: нос, часть носа
Turkic: *sum-
Mongolian: *samsaɣa
Tungus-Manchu: *soŋgi-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Rather sparsely represented and not quite reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *súme
Meaning: a k. of weed, hemp
Russian meaning: вид сорного растения, конопля
Turkic: *süm- ?
Mongolian: *sömü-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *sum-
Korean: *sàm
Japanese: *sua
Comments: Martin 233. Jpn. *sua presupposes a suffixed form *súm(e)-gV. The root can be traced in all branches, but everywhere is rather scantily represented and thus not quite reliable; the exact sort of the denoted plant is also not quite clear.
Proto-Altaic: *sume ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: piece of wood
Russian meaning: кусок дерева
Mongolian: *sumun
Japanese: *suama
Comments: A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss. {Cf. PTM *simi ~ -ü- 2, 176; mod. Korean sam.}
Proto-Altaic: *sùnà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: seed, grain
Russian meaning: семя, зерно
Turkic: *sunu
Japanese: *sànài
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 280. A Turk.-Jpn. isogloss. The root is rather dubious (because of its scarce attestation and specific meaning in Turkic borrowing from some unknown source is not excluded).
Proto-Altaic: *surV ( ~ z-, -ŕ-)
Meaning: root (of tooth), fang
Russian meaning: корень (зуба), клык
Mongolian: *surbalǯi
Tungus-Manchu: *surka
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sū
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: well, very, extremely
Russian meaning: хорошо, очень, чрезвычайно
Mongolian: *su
Tungus-Manchu: *sō
Korean: *su
Japanese: *su
Comments: A common Altaic monosyllabic root.
Proto-Altaic: *sūč`i
Meaning: sweet
Russian meaning: сладкий
Turkic: *sǖči-
Mongolian: *čöčügej
Comments: A Turko-Mongolian isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sūku
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: deer, female deer
Russian meaning: олень, лань
Turkic: *sūkak
Mongolian: *sogu(ɣa)
Tungus-Manchu: *sog-ǯe-
Japanese: *su(n)karu
Comments: Cf. *sák`a and *sĭgò.
Proto-Altaic: *sū̀na ( ~ z-, -i̯ō-)
Meaning: crest, hair lock
Russian meaning: гребень, локон
Mongolian: *sančig
Tungus-Manchu: *sōna
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. Cf. also Mong. sonubtur 'султан' (на голове) - either < *sanu-btur or secondarily borrowed from Manchu.
Proto-Altaic: *sūnu ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to stretch
Russian meaning: вытягивать
Turkic: *sūn-
Mongolian: *sunu-
Tungus-Manchu: *sūn-
Comments: KW 337, Poppe 30, 70. A Western isogloss, and a quite exceptional case of a V̄ : V̄ correspondence between PT and PTM (expressive root? or an old loanword, cf. Doerfer MT 46 ?). On the possibility of Mong. < Turk. see Щербак 1997, 147.
Proto-Altaic: *sū̀re
Meaning: sour, acid, stinking
Russian meaning: кислый, вонючий
Turkic: *sirke
Mongolian: *sori-
Tungus-Manchu: *sūr-
Korean: *sǝ̄r-
Japanese: *suarasi
Comments: Cf. also Evk. sirahun 'whey' (possibly reflecting an unattested Mong. *sira-sun). MMong. širxe 'vinegar' (HY) is most probably borrowed < Turk., see Щербак 1997, 145. The vowel in Turkic is not quite clear (*sürke or *sörke would be expected); cf. also Karakh. (MK) sorquč (perhaps sarqɨč or sɨrquč - vocalization is uncertain) 'a k. of spicy plant (chicory?)', see EDT 848.
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