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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *bū́gà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: heat, steam
Russian meaning: жар, пар
Turkic: *būg
Mongolian: *baɣa-gi-
Tungus-Manchu: *bugar
Japanese: *bák-
Comments: Martin 226 compares the Jpn. form with Kor. pagɨl-, but PA *-g- could not have been preserved in Korean. The latter should be rather derived from PA *p`ó[k]u 'swell' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *bū́ktV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: leg, thigh
Russian meaning: нога, бедро
Turkic: *būt
Tungus-Manchu: *begdi / *bugdi
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 289, Лексика 282. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *bū̀k`e ( ~ -i)
Meaning: hill, mound
Russian meaning: холм, гора
Turkic: *bük
Mongolian: *buka
Tungus-Manchu: *būKa
Korean: *puk ( ~ -ɨ-)
Comments: SKE 208, Дыбо 11. Cf. *bi̯ŭ́ge, *pā̀ko. Jpn. *bǝ́ká is rather to be derived from PA *úk`e q. v. (although contaminations were possible).
Proto-Altaic: *bū́ĺa
Meaning: confusion, fright
Russian meaning: замешательство, испуг
Turkic: *būĺ-
Mongolian: *bala-
Tungus-Manchu: *bolga-
Japanese: *básúr-
Comments: Despite Poppe 75, the Tungus root has nothing to do with Mong. bulga 'confusion, uprise' (a probable Turkic loanword, see under *bŭ́li). Cf. *bŭ̀ĺo.
Proto-Altaic: *bū̀ŋe
Meaning: to howl
Russian meaning: выть
Turkic: *böŋre-
Mongolian: *büŋsi-, *büɣüre-
Tungus-Manchu: *būni-
Japanese: *bàmià-k- ( ~ -ai-)
Comments: Poppe 35, 73. An onomatopaeic root, but widely represented and (except for secondary fronting *būŋi- > *būni- in TM) with quite regular correspondences.
Proto-Altaic: *bū̀ri ( ~ -i̯ū-, -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cover, shade
Russian meaning: закрывать, заслонять
Turkic: *bürü-
Mongolian: *bürü-
Tungus-Manchu: *bū-
Comments: KW 68, Poppe 111, ОСНЯ 1, 192. A Western isogloss - but Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 111. Cf. *bṓrk`i.
Proto-Altaic: *čằbà ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sack
Russian meaning: мешок
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯaPku
Korean: *čar
Japanese: *tàpàra
Comments: An Eastern isogloss. Kor. *čàr is a contraction < *čawar < *čabar.
Proto-Altaic: *čabV
Meaning: helmet, headgear
Russian meaning: шлем, головной убор
Mongolian: *daɣulga
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯabuka
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *čágo
Meaning: a k. of small predator
Russian meaning: вид мелкого хищника
Turkic: *ToK- (?)
Mongolian: *ǯeɣe-ken
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯagari
Comments: A Western isogloss. Initial ǯ- in Mong. is irregular (one should expect either *deɣe-ken or *čiɣe-ken: cf. in this respect the interesting WMong. form čöge-büri ( < *čiɣö-büri ?) 'jackal'); this may be due to an interaction with Turk. *jēbke (see under *zīpe-kV).
Proto-Altaic: *čălù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of broad-leaved plant
Russian meaning: вид лиственного растения
Turkic: *dal
Mongolian: *daldawu
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯali-kta
Korean: *čùr-kí
Japanese: *tùrù
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 13, 77, 288, Дыбо 10. Jpn. and / or Kor. can be also compared with TM *čuru- 'willow, poplar' (ТМС 2, 417); this could explain the tonal discrepancy between Jpn. and Kor.
Proto-Altaic: *čalu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wave, to overflow
Russian meaning: волна, затоплять
Turkic: *dal-g-
Mongolian: *dolgi-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯal-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *čamu
Meaning: a k. of tree
Russian meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Mongolian: *dom
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯamu
Japanese: *tum(u)i
Comments: Cf. *ńam(ń)ekt`V (partial contaminations were possible). WMong. ǯamur 'fruit of sweet-briar (eglantine)' (L 1033) is most probably a Manchu loanword.
Proto-Altaic: *čaŋgu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: gift, loan
Russian meaning: дар, одалживание
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯaŋ(g)-
Japanese: *tu(n)ku-
Comments: A Tungus-Japanese isogloss; not quite secure because of sparse attestation in TM.
Proto-Altaic: *čărikV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Russian meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Turkic: *dẹrek
Mongolian: *čirgaj
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯarikta
Comments: A Western isogloss. Closed *ẹ in PT is not quite clear: perhaps a secondary narrowing in a disyllabic structure.
Proto-Altaic: *čā́kte
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: pine, larch
Russian meaning: сосна, лиственница
Turkic: *Tɨ̄t
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯagda
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss; the PT form, despite Helimski 1995, is hardly < Sam.
Proto-Altaic: *čā́lo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: full, fill
Russian meaning: полный, наполнять
Turkic: *dōl-
Mongolian: *del-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯalu(-m)
Korean: *čăra-
Japanese: *tár-
Comments: Martin 243, JOAL 133-137, Miller 1981, 853, 858, 863; 1986, 195-196, АПиПЯЯ 13, 45-46, 75, 282, Дыбо 12.
Proto-Altaic: *čā̀ma
Meaning: to hesitate, argue
Russian meaning: сомневаться, спорить
Mongolian: *dam-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯām-
Japanese: *tàmiàrap- ( ~ -ai-)
Comments: One of the suffixed forms - *čā̀ma-rV- (TM *ǯāmV-ra-) or *čā̀ma-lV- (Mong. *dam-la-) may be reflected in PJ *tàmià-ra-; the diphthong -ia- ( ~ -ai-) may, however, suggest a more complex origin of the Japanese form.
Proto-Altaic: *čĕk`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to repeat, again, always
Russian meaning: повторять; всегда, снова
Turkic: *d(i)akɨ
Mongolian: *daki-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯeki
Japanese: *tǝkǝ
Comments: Gombocz 1905, 278, KW 73, Владимирцов 319. Mong. is hardly < Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 153. Jpn. *tǝkǝ- < *takǝ because of the incompatibility of *a and *ǝ in PJ.
Proto-Altaic: *čĕ́lV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of small animal
Russian meaning: вид небольшого животного
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯele-kī
Korean: *čār
Japanese: *tái ( ~ -ia)
Comments: An Eastern isogloss. The Jpn. form reflects a suffixed formation *čĕl(V)-gV.
Proto-Altaic: *čḕlV
Meaning: to split, hole, crack
Russian meaning: расщеплять, дыра, щель
Turkic: *dil-
Mongolian: *čilüɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯēlge
Comments: KW 444, Владимирцов 183, Poppe 16 (Turk.-Mong.). A Western isogloss. The root was originally verbal (cf. PT); Mong. and TM reflect a velar derivative *čḕlV-gV. Despite Doerfer's (TMN 2, 554) criticism the comparison still seems valid (although the narrowing *e > i in PT is not quite clear). Miller (1985b, 207) cites a MJ tir- 'cut in narrow strips' which would be a nice match, but we were unable to identify the source of the word.
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