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Proto-Altaic: *si̯útu ( ~ *z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to throw out, push out
Russian meaning: выбрасывать, выталкивать
Mongolian: *side-
Tungus-Manchu: *sut-
Korean: *sòt-
Japanese: *súta-
Comments: Lee 1958, 117 (Kor.-TM).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯uǯakV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of small animal
Russian meaning: вид небольшого животного
Turkic: *sɨčgan
Mongolian: *čičaguli
Tungus-Manchu: *suǯakī
Comments: EAS 96, TMN 3, 308; Лексика 168. A Western isogloss. The root seems plausible, but has some phonetic irregularities. Instead of Evk. suǯakī one could perhaps compare Tung. *šolčikī 'ferret' (ТМС 2, 405). Shor čolasčaɣa, Khak. čolǯanaχ 'ласка, хорек' (VEWT 115) is probably < TM.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ū̀bi ( ~ *z-)
Meaning: to be hoarse (of voice)
Russian meaning: быть хриплым (о голосе)
Mongolian: *söɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *sīb-
Korean: *sùb-
Japanese: *siwa-(n)kara- ( ~ -p-)
Comments: An expressive root, cf. *sĭ̀pi.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ū́bu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: end
Russian meaning: конец
Turkic: *sīb-ri
Mongolian: *seɣül
Tungus-Manchu: *sube-
Korean: *sìbúr
Japanese: *súwá-i
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 70, 295, Мудрак Дисс. 46. Turk. *sīb-ri < *sɨ̄b-ri (with a frequent fronting ɨ̄ > i).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ū́jro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: yellowish, light
Russian meaning: желтоватый, светлый
Turkic: *sūr
Mongolian: *sirga
Tungus-Manchu: *sür-
Korean: *sjǝ̄i-
Comments: Doerfer MT 241. The Mong. vocalism is not quite regular: perhaps -i- instead of u~o under the influence of the following *-j- (which has to be reconstructed to account for Kor. -i-).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ū̀ku ( ~ -a)
Meaning: to copulate, insert
Russian meaning: спариваться, втыкать
Turkic: *sik-
Mongolian: *sige-d-
Tungus-Manchu: *sōKān
Comments: A Western isogloss. In Turkic one would rather expect -ɨ-, so the vocalism is not quite regular.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ūli ( ~ z-, -ĺ-)
Meaning: gall
Russian meaning: желчь
Mongolian: *söl-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *sī, *sīl-se
Comments: ТМС 2, 73, Rozycki 182. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. The root tends to merge with *ši̯ṑlí 'juice, fluid' (q. v.).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ū́na
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hear, observe
Russian meaning: слышать, наблюдать
Turkic: *sɨ̄n
Mongolian: *sonos-
Korean: *s(j)ǝn-
Comments: Basically a Turk.-Mong. isogloss; the Kor. form is late attested and somewhat insecure. Cf. perhaps also Manchu suŋǵen 'clever, smart' ( < *'perceiving'?).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ū́ni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fade, extinguish
Russian meaning: пропадать, гаснуть
Turkic: *sȫn-
Mongolian: *sönü-
Tungus-Manchu: *sī- ( ~ -ǖ-)
Japanese: *sín-
Comments: EAS 71, KW 333, Poppe 30, 70, Ozawa 231-232, АПиПЯЯ 72, 274. Mong. is hardly < Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 147.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ū́ra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: arrow; fight, battle, success in battle
Russian meaning: стрела; битва, удача в бою
Turkic: *sɨ̄r-
Mongolian: *sur
Tungus-Manchu: *sori
Korean: *sàră-
Japanese: *satu-i
Comments: The Korean reflex is somewhat dubious, being traditionally derived < *sār- 'to live' (sară-čap- = 'to take alive'). This, however, may be a secondary folk etymology, the original meaning of the compound being 'to take booty'.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ū́t`i (~ -t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: milk, a k. of liquid
Russian meaning: молоко, вид жидкости
Turkic: *sǖt
Mongolian: *ü-sü-n
Tungus-Manchu: *site-
Korean: *stɨ́-
Comments: Лексика 449. Mong. cannot be a Turkic loanword, despite Щербак 1997, 150. The form must be traced to *süt-sün > *sü-sün (with a regular dissimilative development > *üsün). Kor. has a frequent loss of vowel between a fricative and a stop. The original meaning must have been 'liquid' or 'milk-like liquid' (with drops or bubbles on the surface) - whence, on the one hand, "sweat" and "soak", on the other - "milk" (in the Turk.-Mong. area).
Proto-Altaic: *sī́ju ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bite, break
Russian meaning: кусать, ломать
Turkic: *sɨ̄-
Mongolian: *süji-
Tungus-Manchu: *sia-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Mong. *süji- is a usual metathesis < *sijü-. Cf. also *siju 'ear-ring'.
Proto-Altaic: *sīĺa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sharp stick; tooth
Russian meaning: острая палочка; зуб
Turkic: *sīĺ / *sɨ̄ĺ
Mongolian: *sidü
Tungus-Manchu: *sila(-bun)
Korean: *sár
Japanese: *sàs-, *sàsì
Comments: EAS 108, VEWT 424, Doerfer TMN 3, 325-326 (with quite unjustified doubts), MT 240 (Turk.-Tung.), Miller 1970, 129, Street 1980, 300, АПиПЯЯ 288, Дыбо 13, Мудрак Дисс. 41-42, Лексика 228. The comparison with Kor. and Jpn. seems very probable, although here we have a rather rare case of tonal irregularity: one would expect a low tone in Kor. and a high tone in Japanese. In Jpn. the tonal irregularity could be explained by a contamination with some different root - e.g., with the root reflected in PT *sanč- 'to pierce' (ЭСТЯ 7); but the Kor. high tone is still unexplained. It is interesting to note the common Turkic-Mongolian derivative meaning "2-year-old sheep or camel": Turkic *siĺek / *diĺek (see VEWT 424), MMong. šilegu, Khalkha šilbe, Bur. šülge (certainly not a loan in Mong. < Turk., despite Róna-Tas 1970, 215 with a detailed analysis of the words, see Poppe 1974, 123). The variant *diĺek (attested in MK tišek and in Yak. tisege, see EDT 563) is an obvious innovation in a part of Old Turkic dialects, following the replacement of *siĺ 'tooth' by *dīĺ q. v., just like WMong. sidüleŋ "2-year-old sheep" is an innovation following the replacement of original *sil 'tooth' by the suffixed formation *sil-dü > sidü.
Proto-Altaic: *sī́la
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rub, clean
Russian meaning: тереть, чистить
Turkic: *sīl- / *sɨ̄la-
Mongolian: *silu-
Tungus-Manchu: *silkü-
Korean: *sǝ̀r-
Japanese: *sárá-
Comments: EAS 72, 124, 150, SKE 230, Мудрак Дисс. 42.
Proto-Altaic: *sī̀pe
Meaning: swamped ground, swamp vegetation
Russian meaning: болотистая почва, болотная растительность
Turkic: *seb-
Mongolian: *siber
Tungus-Manchu: *sībe
Japanese: *símpà / *sìmpá
Comments: ТМС 2, 76, АПиПЯЯ 79. Despite Poppe 1966, 198, Doerfer MT 52, TM cannot be borrowed from Mong. The irregular voicing in Jpn. ( < PA *-p-) must be due to a confusion with a very similar root, *sìmpá ~ *símpá 'firewood' < PA *sắp`í; Jpn. dialects show a great deal of confusion between these two roots.
Proto-Altaic: *sī́p`í
Meaning: a k. of pipe
Russian meaning: вид трубки
Turkic: *sīpek
Mongolian: *sib-
Japanese: *simpai
Comments: Cf. also PT *sɨ̄pɨŕgu 'flute' (ЭСТЯ 7). In TM one may note Neg. sịwsaxawụn 'wire (for pipe cleaning'), Nan. sịosaqo 'wire (for burning a hole), sịosan- 'to burn (a hole with a wire)', Oroch siapti 'mouthpiece (of a tobacco pipe)' (ТМС 2, 74, 75). These words are hardly borrowed from Mong. sibsiɣür, but are rather reflexes of original *sibe- 'pull out, pick out' (see *zi̯upi) influenced by the Mong. word.
Proto-Altaic: *sógà ( ~ -u-)
Meaning: drunken, alcoholic drink
Russian meaning: пьяный; алкогольный напиток
Turkic: *sUg-
Mongolian: *sogta-
Korean: *sù'ɨ̀r
Japanese: *sáká-i
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 275. The Jpn.-Kor. comparison see in Martin 235 (with a somewhat fantastic reconstruction). Actually Korean drops -g- quite regularly, while -r is an obvious suffix; the vowel -u-, however, is a problem (*-a- would be expected), and should be probably explained as a result of contraction (thus *sù'ɨ̀r < *sagV-bVr or the like). Existing TM forms (see ТМС 2,106) are clearly borrowed from Mongolian, see Doerfer MT 39, Rozycki 186. Cf. also Karakh. suɣdɨč 'winter parties, arranged by turns'.
Proto-Altaic: *soge
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to breathe, breath
Russian meaning: дышать, дыхание
Turkic: *soglɨ-
Mongolian: *süji-
Tungus-Manchu: *sug-
Korean: *sūi-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 7. Cf. *sĭ̀gà.
Proto-Altaic: *sogì
Meaning: a k. of meat dish
Russian meaning: вид мясного блюда
Turkic: *sögül-
Mongolian: *suɣumaj
Tungus-Manchu: *sugulē-n
Japanese: *suki-jaki
Comments: Note the morphological match between Evk. suɣulēn and PT *sögü-l- (or *sögü-ĺ-).
Proto-Altaic: *sogú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to search, choose
Russian meaning: искать, выбирать
Turkic: *sogra- ?
Mongolian: *soŋgu- (*soɣoŋgu-)
Tungus-Manchu: *sugele- (/ *segule-)
Japanese: *sunkur-
Comments: Ozawa 233-234.
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