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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *si̯uga
Meaning: a k. of bird
Russian meaning: вид птицы
Turkic: *sɨgɨrčɨk
Mongolian: *sojir
Tungus-Manchu: *sog-
Korean: *sāi
Comments: Cf. also MKor. sòiròkí 'a k. of bird'. The Kor. word (with an unsuccessful etymology in SKE 218) was compared with Turk. *sar in АПиПЯЯ 295; but the latter should be rather compared with Kor. súrí, see *sàru.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŭ̀[k]i ( ~ *š-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of bird
Russian meaning: вид птицы
Turkic: *süglin
Korean: *skuǝ̀ŋ
Japanese: *sìnkî
Comments: Korean has a frequent loss of vowel between a fricative and a stop. The medial consonant is not quite clear: perhaps Turk. *süglen < *süklen with a secondary voicing.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŭli
Meaning: a k. of worm
Russian meaning: вид червя
Turkic: *sül-
Tungus-Manchu: *silV-
Comments: Лексика 185. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ulu ( ~ *z-, -ĺ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: conifer, pine tree
Russian meaning: хвойное дерево, сосна
Mongolian: *silmeɣü-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *sol-
Korean: *sór
Comments: SKE 240.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯umi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dark, obscure
Russian meaning: темный
Turkic: *süm
Mongolian: *süme-
Tungus-Manchu: *sim-
Comments: Räsänen 1955. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *s[i̯ù]mk`i
Meaning: cough
Russian meaning: кашель
Turkic: *simük, *simki-
Tungus-Manchu: *simki-
Japanese: *sàik- ~ siàk-
Comments: An expressive root with some vocalic irregularities.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ùmu
Meaning: a k. of grass, flower
Russian meaning: вид травы, цветка
Mongolian: *sim-
Tungus-Manchu: *sum-
Japanese: *sùm-
Comments: The root must have denoted some blossoming berry or shrub.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯únŋi
Meaning: a k. of knife or lance
Russian meaning: вид ножа или копья
Turkic: *süŋgü
Mongolian: *sumun
Tungus-Manchu: *siŋńa-
Korean: *sòní
Comments: Possibly connected etymologically with *si̯úŋe 'fight'.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯únŋu ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: island, shallow place
Russian meaning: остров, отмель
Mongolian: *sinaɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *suŋnī-
Japanese: *súná
Comments: The meaning 'shallow place' explains the semantic developments ( > 'island', 'sand'; 'tussock in a swamp').
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ùnu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: form, shape
Russian meaning: форма, вид
Turkic: *sɨ(j)n
Mongolian: *süne-sü
Japanese: *sùn-kata
Comments: Originally probably a shamanistic term ('soul', 'shape').
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ùŋe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hoar-frost
Russian meaning: иней
Turkic: *seŋ
Mongolian: *söŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *süŋü-
Korean: *sǝ́ŋ- / *sǝ́n- / *sán-
Japanese: *sùnsù-
Comments: KW 333, SKE 234, АПиПЯЯ 81. The vowel in Turkic is unclear. Cf. also Old Koguryo *ṣäñäli 'zephyr' (see Miller 1979, 7). The Kor. and Jpn. form reflect a derived form *si̯ùŋ(e)ĺV.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯úŋe
Meaning: fight, wrestling
Russian meaning: борьба, битва
Turkic: *söŋü-ĺ / *süŋü-ĺ
Tungus-Manchu: *süŋkē-
Japanese: *súmápú
Comments: An element of common Altaic hunting or warrior terminology.
Proto-Altaic: *s[i̯ú]ŋu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to sink
Russian meaning: погружаться
Turkic: *siŋ-
Mongolian: *siŋge-
Tungus-Manchu: *suŋta
Japanese: *síntúm-
Comments: KW 359, Владимирцов 173, Poppe 31, 72, 116 (Turk.-Mong.), Мудрак Дисс. 43. Mong. siŋge- may be borrowed from Turk. (see Щербак 1997, 144), but cf. also WMong. suŋɣu-, šuŋɣa-, Kalm. suŋgǝ-, šuŋgǝ- 'to dive', Dag. šungu- (KW 337, 368, MGCD 726; Mong. > Kirgh. süŋgü- etc., see ЭСТЯ 7) < *siŋV-kV. The Jpn. form fits here rather well (*síntú- = TM *suŋ-ta), but we would rather expect *-u-.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ùŋu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to whine, weep
Russian meaning: плакать, визжать
Turkic: *siŋ- (~ -ɨ-)
Tungus-Manchu: *soŋa-
Japanese: *sùná-
Comments: An onomatopoeic root, but with quite good correspondences. Cf. also notes to *si̯ā́ńi. {ND 2092 compares also WMo seŋgene- 'sing (of wind'): possible if < *siŋgene-.}
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŭ́ŋV(-kV)
Meaning: a k. of flying insect
Russian meaning: вид летучего насекомого
Turkic: *siŋek
Mongolian: *simaɣul
Tungus-Manchu: *süŋke
Japanese: *sáimì ( ~ -ia-)
Comments: Мудрак Дисс. 42-43, Лексика 186. An insect name, with tabooistic irregular vocalic changes.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŭ́ŕe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sound
Russian meaning: звук
Turkic: *söŕ
Mongolian: *sür- / *sur-
Tungus-Manchu: *sür-
Korean: *sòrắi
Comments: KW 338, Lee 1958, 119. Despite Doerfer's criticism in TMN 3, 296 the comparison seems reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŭ̀ŕi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to flow, drip
Russian meaning: течь, капать
Turkic: *süŕ-
Mongolian: *sür-
Tungus-Manchu: *sir-
Comments: A Western isogloss. The root may in fact be the same as *si̯òri (reflected in the Eastern area) q. v., but modified under the influence of a synonymous *ši̯ŭŕu q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯uŕo
Meaning: to drag; sleigh
Russian meaning: тащить; сани
Turkic: *soŕ-
Tungus-Manchu: *siru-
Korean: *sùr'úi
Japanese: *sǝ́rì ( ~ *-ui, -ǝi)
Comments: Lee 1958, 118 (Kor.-TM).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯uru ( ~ z-, -ŕ-)
Meaning: ant, insect eggs
Russian meaning: муравей, яйца насекомых
Mongolian: *sirgolǯi
Tungus-Manchu: *sura
Korean: *sɨr-
Comments: Cf. *si̯ằjrí.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯úsa
Meaning: a k. of bamboo
Russian meaning: вид бамбука
Turkic: *sɨs
Tungus-Manchu: *susē-gde
Korean: *sàsắr
Japanese: *sásá
Comments: The root is very sparsely attested and thus not quite reliable.
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