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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *si̯āŋa
Meaning: a k. of big fish
Russian meaning: вид большой рыбы
Tungus-Manchu: *siaŋa-
Japanese: *sama-i
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ā́p`í ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to wither, rot
Russian meaning: вянуть, гнить
Mongolian: *sebesüre-
Tungus-Manchu: *siaba- ( ~ -p-)
Japanese: *símpǝ́m-
Comments: Correspondences are quite regular, and the root seems reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ā̀sa
Meaning: noise, sound
Russian meaning: шум, звук
Turkic: *ses
Tungus-Manchu: *siasi-n
Japanese: *sàsà-
Comments: An expressive root, but probably of common Altaic origin.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯obe ( ~ -p-)
Meaning: freckles, pimples
Russian meaning: веснушки, прыщи
Turkic: *seb-
Mongolian: *seb
Tungus-Manchu: *subgu
Comments: A Western isogloss. The Mong. root noun *seb makes the inner Turkic derivation < *sep- 'to scatter' (see e.g. ЭСТЯ 7) rather improbable. The TM form presupposes a semantic development 'skin defect' > 'wrinkled skin' > 'fish skin'; cf. for it, however, alternatively WMong. sabkin 'dressed leather'.
Proto-Altaic: *s[i̯ó]č`i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to flee; to pursue
Russian meaning: убегать; преследовать
Turkic: *suč-
Mongolian: *soči-
Tungus-Manchu: *suča-
Korean: *čòčh-
Japanese: *sítá-(n)kap-
Comments: KW 444, Владимирцов 407, SKE 41; Martin 232, АПиПЯЯ 77. The root seems quite reliable, although not devoid of phonetic peculiarities: the Jpn. form seems to points to a diphthong, while the Turkic and Mong. forms would be better derived from a form like *suč`u or *suč`o.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯oga
Meaning: cross-bow, arrow
Russian meaning: лук, арбалет, стрела
Turkic: *sAg[u]n
Mongolian: *saɣali
Tungus-Manchu: *sug-
Korean: *hoàr
Japanese: *sa
Comments: Note an identical derivative in Mong. and Jpn.: Mong. *saɣadag 'quiver' (WMong. saɣadaɣ, Khalkha sādag, L 656, KW 316-317, MGCD 584; Mong. > Chag. saɣdaq, Oyr. sadaq etc., see TMN 1, 337, Щербак 1997, 209, Лексика 567, ЭСТЯ 7) = PJ *sàjá 'sheath' (OJ sàjá, JLTT 520).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯óga
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: back, back skin
Russian meaning: спина, кожа на спине
Turkic: *sagrɨ
Mongolian: *sajir / *saɣari
Tungus-Manchu: *sogda-nsa
Korean: *hǝ̀-
Japanese: *sá- / *sǝ́-
Comments: KW 319, Дыбо 306, TMN 3, 225 (doubting the common origin of the Turk. and Mong. forms). Kor. hǝri was originally attributed (see PKE 54, Martin 245, АПиПЯЯ 76, 289) to PA *k`éĺe; it seems, however, that the root is just *hǝ-, and it is better to derive it from *si̯óga, both for this reason and because of an apparent lack of development *k`- > h- in Korean.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŏ̀gdú ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: vein, sinew
Russian meaning: жила, сухожилие
Mongolian: *sudal
Tungus-Manchu: *sigde
Japanese: *sùntí
Comments: A good common Altaic anatomical term.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯òge
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wart; pock-mark
Russian meaning: бородавка; оспина
Turkic: *s[e]göl ( / *sögil)
Mongolian: *söɣel
Tungus-Manchu: *sogi-
Korean: *hók
Comments: VEWT 429, KW 335, Владимирцов 213, АПиПЯЯ 285. The Mong. form can be borrowed from Turkic, but the Tungus and Korean forms are evidently genuine. The variation *sigöl / *sögöl in Turkic points perhaps to original *segöl (which would be the expected form).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŏ́gu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shallow, shallow place
Russian meaning: мелкий, отмель
Turkic: *sɨg
Mongolian: *siɣa-r
Tungus-Manchu: *sigi-
Japanese: *sú
Comments: Delabialization in Turkic is not quite clear (*sug would be expected).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŏ̀gu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sun; sky
Russian meaning: солнце; небо
Tungus-Manchu: *sigūn
Korean: *hắi
Japanese: *suà-rá
Comments: Lee 1958, 118, АПиПЯЯ 49, 81, 292. An Eastern isogloss. It is also interesting (cf. Whitman 1985, 148-150) to note MKor. hànắr 'sky', which may, together with PJ *suàrá id., go back to a complex form *si̯og[u]n-lV.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŏ́k`ù
Meaning: small, few
Russian meaning: мало, немного
Tungus-Manchu: *siKe-
Korean: *hòk-
Japanese: *sùkù- / *sùkuà-
Comments: Vovin 2000 (comparing *sùkuà- and *hòk; but his attempt to separate PJ *sùkù-na- and *sùkuà- is hardly successful). An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŏ́k`ù
Meaning: to be hollow, crack
Russian meaning: быть полым, отверстие, трещина
Turkic: *suk-
Mongolian: *sekeɣe / *segeɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *six-
Korean: *skɨ́-m, *skí-
Japanese: *súk-
Comments: Cf. *sĭ́gú, with a possibility of mergers.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯óle
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to make, put
Russian meaning: делать, класть
Turkic: *sal-
Korean: *hằ-
Japanese: *sV́-
Comments: SKE 59 (without the Turk. parallel), Whitman 1985, 168, 235, АПиПЯЯ 286. Mongolian parallels (both in SKE 59 and in KW 309, VEWT 397) are highly dubious. For the Auslaut relations cf. *gĕ̀le: one of the possible PA monosyllabic verbal roots (*si̯ól).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŏlo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: some internal organ
Russian meaning: назв. внутреннего органа
Turkic: *solak
Mongolian: *söl-
Tungus-Manchu: *silu-kta
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. *ši̯ằĺi (with possible contaminations). {Cf. WMo šalǯa 'overcooked meat', Ewk. silamačin 'мясо с верхней части ног медведя}.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯òmì ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wet snow, hoar-frost
Russian meaning: мокрый снег, иней
Mongolian: *simarga
Tungus-Manchu: *sumu
Japanese: *sìmǝ̀
Comments: The match with Japanese is both phonetically and semantically precise, so the root seems quite reliable (despite sparse attestation in TM).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯óna
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: one, single
Russian meaning: один, единственный
Turkic: *s[ɨ]ŋar ( < *s(i)an-gar)
Mongolian: *sondu-
Tungus-Manchu: *soni
Korean: *hằnàh
Japanese: *sa-, *sane
Comments: SKE 60, ТМС 2,11, АПиПЯЯ 296.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ono ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: night
Russian meaning: ночь
Mongolian: *söni
Tungus-Manchu: *siŋkē
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯oŋre
Meaning: vertebra, spine ramification
Russian meaning: позвонок, спинной отросток
Turkic: *sEŋir
Mongolian: *seɣer
Tungus-Manchu: *soro-ptun
Comments: KW 328, Владимирцов 250-251, Poppe 73, EAS 119. A Western isogloss: on a possible Kor. match see under *si̯oga.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŏ̀pe ( ~ -i)
Meaning: rib
Russian meaning: ребро
Turkic: *sabar
Mongolian: *sübe-
Tungus-Manchu: *subi-
Comments: KW 341; Doerfer MT 61-62 (Mong.-Tung.: "schwierige Verhältnisse"). A Western isogloss. Phonetically a good match would be Kor. hǝpha 'lung', but the meaning raises some doubts.
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