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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *siŕu ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: pain
Russian meaning: боль
Turkic: *sɨŕ-
Mongolian: *sir-
Tungus-Manchu: *sir
Korean: *sìrɨ́m
Comments: KW 349.
Proto-Altaic: *sísu ( ~ z-)
Meaning: to baste, cloth
Russian meaning: сметывать, ткань
Mongolian: *sisegej
Tungus-Manchu: *sise-
Korean: *sɨs-
Japanese: *súsuá
Comments: Lee 1958, 117.
Proto-Altaic: *sít`ì ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to think, worry, be anxious
Russian meaning: думать, волноваться, быть озабоченным
Mongolian: *sitü-
Tungus-Manchu: *sita-
Korean: *sìtɨ́rǝ́p-
Japanese: *sítáp-
Comments: In MKor. cf. also sìtɨ́r- 'to be emaciated, wither'.
Proto-Altaic: *sìt`ò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: ladder, framed wall
Russian meaning: лестница, решетчатая стена
Mongolian: *sita
Tungus-Manchu: *sitkī
Korean: *satări
Japanese: *sìtǝ̀mi
Comments: KW 351, SKE 217. The etymology seems plausible, despite Doerfer's (TMN 3, 318) doubts ("Zusammenhang der kor. Form mit der tü.-mo. scheint zweifelhaft") - although the Korean vocalism is in fact not quite clear.
Proto-Altaic: *sit`V́ ( ~ z-, š-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bands tied to sacrifices
Russian meaning: ленты, привязываемые к жертвоприношениям
Mongolian: *seter
Japanese: *sintai (~-ia)
Comments: A rather striking Mong.-Jpn. isogloss. Cf. perhaps also Evk. čitarān- 'натянуть, затянуть (ремнем, поясом)' (ТМС 2, 400); Sol. š́īttũ 'летняя обшивка юрты из прутьев' (ТМС 2, 426).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ăbi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to sew, perforate, awl
Russian meaning: шить, протыкать, шило
Mongolian: *siböge
Tungus-Manchu: *sibi-
Korean: *hō-
Comments: The root is actively (esp. in Mongolian) contaminating with *sī́p`í 'pipe' (as something which may be poked, perforated).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ằjrí
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: nit, louse
Russian meaning: гнида, вошь
Turkic: *sirke
Mongolian: *sirke
Tungus-Manchu: *sire-
Korean: *hjǝ̀
Japanese: *sìrám(u)i
Comments: KW 360, АПиПЯЯ 73, 83, 87, 276 (confused with the reflexes of *si̯uru q. v.), Лексика 182, Whitman 1985, 168. In Turkic a secondary narrowing (*sirke < *serke or *si̯arke) occurred. Mong. may be < Turkic. In Kor. we have to suppose *si̯àjri > *hjǝ̀ (with tone modified because of contraction).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯aku ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: chaff, husks
Russian meaning: мякина, шелуха
Mongolian: *saga-
Tungus-Manchu: *suK-
Korean: *skór
Japanese: *suku-mǝ
Comments: Korean has a rather frequent loss of vowel between a fricative and a stop (*skór < *sVkor).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯alo(-kV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of small fur animal
Russian meaning: вид небольшого пушного животного
Turkic: *sialɨk
Mongolian: *sileɣü-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *solüki
Korean: *sɨra-
Comments: Лексика 165. The Kor. form is somewhat unclear morphologically; the -ɨ- vowel may be a distortion of the expected *-ă- or *-u- in a long form. Cf. *sólukV.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ame ( ~ -i, -i̯o-)
Meaning: wound, pain
Russian meaning: рана, боль
Mongolian: *sim-si-
Korean: *hǝ̀mɨ́r
Comments: A Mong.-Kor. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ăŋe(rV) ( ~ z-)
Meaning: yellowish, greyish
Russian meaning: желтоватый, сероватый
Mongolian: *saɣar-
Tungus-Manchu: *siŋa(r)-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ắp`ú
Meaning: to add, addition
Russian meaning: добавлять, добавка
Turkic: *sep-
Tungus-Manchu: *sup-
Japanese: *súmpa-
Comments: A probable Jpn.-Turk.-TM match.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ắŕi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: earth, sand; marsh
Russian meaning: земля, песок; болото
Turkic: *siaŕ
Mongolian: *siraɣu
Tungus-Manchu: *siru-
Korean: *hằrk
Japanese: *situ
Comments: KW 365, Poppe 30, 60, 114, VEWT 406 (without the Korean parallel), AKE 8, EAS 155, Miller 1985b, 205, АПиПЯЯ 291, Дыбо 11, Мудрак Дисс. 195, Лексика 93. Despite Poppe 1972, 100, Doerfer MT 65, the TM form is hardly borrowed from Mong. The Turk.-Mong. match is characterized by Doerfer (TMN 3, 222), in his usual style, as "lautlich und semantisch unsicher". In Kor. cf. perhaps also MKor. hɨ̀rì- 'dirty' ( < *hằri with vowel assimilation?).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯arpu
Meaning: scar, wound
Russian meaning: шрам, рана
Mongolian: *sorbi
Tungus-Manchu: *surba-kta
Korean: *hǝ̄r-
Comments: Cf. perhaps some Turkic forms: Karakh. (MK) sorɨš-, sorɨt- 'to wrinkle', Tuva sortɨla- 'to be painful', sortɨlāš 'dimple', Khak. sortɨx 'hollow cheeks' (although one would rather expect *a-vocalism and preservation of labial in Turkic).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ata
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to ill-treat, betray
Russian meaning: плохо обращаться, предавать
Turkic: *siat-ga-
Mongolian: *sadur
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ā̀bo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of stick
Russian meaning: вид палки
Mongolian: *seɣül
Tungus-Manchu: *sōba
Japanese: *sàwùa
Comments: Cf. *sắp`í, *sèp`ù (with possible contaminations in Mongolian).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ā̀gi
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Russian meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Turkic: *següt
Mongolian: *siɣer
Tungus-Manchu: *siakta
Comments: VEWT 429, Дыбо 11. A Western isogloss. Length is reconstructed to account for *-ia- (after a fricative) in TM.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ā̀jri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: white
Russian meaning: белый; желтый
Turkic: *siarɨg
Mongolian: *sira
Tungus-Manchu: *siarū-
Korean: *hắi-
Japanese: *sìruà-
Comments: KW 349, Владимирцов 146, 318, Lee 1958, 117, АПиПЯЯ 26, 73, 86, 278, Мудрак Дисс. 195. Mong. is not borrowed from Turkic, despite Щербак 1997, 144 (Doerfer TMN 3, 221 says: "aus lautlichen Gründen unwahrscheinlich" (?)); the meaning 'yellow', however, may be secondarily induced by the Turkic forms - since the original meaning of the root, preserved also in Chuvash, was most certainly 'white'. Medial *-j- is reconstructed to account for the loss of *-r- in Kor. Cf. also Old Koguryo *šilap 'white' (see Miller 1979, 7).
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ā́k`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to think, worry
Russian meaning: думать, волноваться
Turkic: *siāk-
Mongolian: *sege-, *seke-
Tungus-Manchu: *siaK-
Korean: *skắi-
Japanese: *sákà-
Comments: Мудрак Дисс. 195. Cf. *sèk`u. The variant with *-g- in Mong. is obviously assimilative.
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ā́ńi
Meaning: to be distressed, think with sadness
Russian meaning: расстраиваться, грустить
Turkic: *siāń- (~-j-)
Mongolian: *sinu-
Japanese: *sínuá-p-
Comments: Cf. *sĭ̀ni and *saŋe: the roots are sometimes different to distinguish.
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