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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ắla
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: take, receive
Russian meaning: брать, получать
Turkic: *ạl-
Mongolian: *ali-
Tungus-Manchu: *al(i)-
Japanese: *á-
Comments: KW 6, EAS 140, Poppe 75, Doerfer MT 239 (attempts to disprove the etymology in TMN 2, 122 are futile). The reason for close *ạ in PT is unclear (*al- would be normally expected). Note, however, that the Jpn. reflex represents loss of *-l- in a verbal stem, thus strongly suggesting an original monosyllabic form *ál (cf. *gĕ̀le, {*si̯óle}).
Proto-Altaic: *ála
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hail, ice
Russian meaning: град, лед
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)al-dan
Korean: *ǝ̀r-
Japanese: *árárái (~-ría)
Comments: Martin 232. Basically a Kor.-Jpn. isogloss; the TM evidence is very scanty and thus dubious.
Proto-Altaic: *àlak`u
Meaning: to walk, step
Russian meaning: ходить, шагать
Mongolian: *alku-
Japanese: *àrùk-
Comments: A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss. See АПиПЯЯ 278. Man. alxun 'step', alkūn 'the gait of a horse or other livestock' is no doubt borrowed from Mongolian (see Rozycki 16-17). The Jpn.-Mong. comparison seems to us preferable to other etymologies of the Mongolian form (see ОСНЯ 3,66-70; Poppe 96, KW 7 - Mong. alqu-: Turk. *āĺ-). The stem can be possibly derived from a root reflected in Mong. *ala 'inner side of thigh' (L 26; Poppe 75; pl. alas, whence Evk. alas, see Doerfer MT 94; hence also WMong. alčaji-, Khalkha alcaj- 'to spread the legs', Dag. alčī- id., WMong. alčaɣar, alčaŋ, Khalkha alcan 'bowlegged'; but to be distinguished is *ale 'below' q. v.).
Proto-Altaic: *ằĺčà
Meaning: knucklebone; foot
Russian meaning: лодыжка, бабка; нога
Turkic: *(i)aĺ(č)uk
Mongolian: *(h)alču
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ajū
Japanese: *àsì
Comments: Poppe 86, 95, TMN 2, 115, АПиПЯЯ 275, Дыбо 15, Лексика 288.
Proto-Altaic: *alda
Meaning: fathom
Russian meaning: сажень
Mongolian: *alda
Tungus-Manchu: *alda-n
Korean: *ară-m
Japanese: *ata
Comments: Ozawa 38-40, АПиПЯЯ 16, 71, Rozycki 18-19. Despite Doerfer MT 111, TM forms are hardly < Mong. (because of a semantic difference). A possible parallel in Turkic could be *adɨ[ĺ] > OT adɨt 'handful', Kirgh. adɨš, Yak. ɨtɨs 'palm' (VEWT 7, ЭСТЯ 1, 100-101, 410, Лексика 252, Stachowski 263), but there are some phonetic and semantic problems. Note, however, that OJ ata also denotes a small measure of length (8 sun, or about 12 centimetres) - rather a span than a fathom. Such a semantic development may presuppose an earlier usage of *alda in constructions like 'big fathom' - 'small fathom' ( = 'span') both in Turkic and Japanese.
Proto-Altaic: *ale
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: below, lower
Russian meaning: низ, опускать
Turkic: *ăl
Korean: *àrái
Japanese: *ǝ̀rǝ́-
Comments: SKE 6, EAS 106, Martin 230. The tone correspondence between Kor. and Jpn. is irregular.
Proto-Altaic: *ălgi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: net, sieve
Russian meaning: сеть, сито
Turkic: *ĕlge-
Tungus-Manchu: *alga
Korean: *ǝrkǝmi
Comments: EAS 145, SKE 53 (Kor. is somewhat doubtful: KED 1142 has only ǝlgɨm čhe 'rough sieve' - lit. 'pock-marked sieve').
Proto-Altaic: *ăĺi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to know; to listen, hear
Russian meaning: знать; слушать, слышать
Turkic: *ẹĺit-
Mongolian: *al-dar
Tungus-Manchu: *ala-
Korean: *ār-
Comments: EAS 140, 154, SKE 7 (Mong.-Kor.-Tung.), АПиПЯЯ 282; closed *ẹ in PT may be explained by a secondary narrowing in a disyllable *eĺ-it- > *ẹĺ-it- (cf. *er-kek > *ẹr-kek etc.).
Proto-Altaic: *áĺi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sand
Russian meaning: песок
Turkic: *Aĺu
Mongolian: *ele-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *al-
Japanese: *ísá-, *ísuá
Comments: PJ *ísuá < *ísá-gV; the root's similarity to *(d)isi `stone' is accidental (no -i/-a alternation exists in Japanese).
Proto-Altaic: *álikV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of small animal
Russian meaning: вид небольшого животного
Turkic: *Ălaŋɨr
Mongolian: *(h)alag-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)algi-n
Japanese: *írúká
Comments: In Turk. and Mong. the stem is associated with the reflexes of *ā́lV 'variegated' (q. v.), which is most probably a folk etymology. In Japanese the meaning 'dolphin' must be a secondary transformation of 'otter-like animal' (cf. the meaning 'otter' in TM).
Proto-Altaic: *ălpa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: unable, sick; being at service, man-at-arms
Russian meaning: слабый, больной; бесправный, наемник
Turkic: *ălp-
Mongolian: *alba-n
Tungus-Manchu: *alba-
Korean: *àrphằ-
Japanese: *apar-
Comments: Poppe 85, 121 (Turk-Mong.); TMN 2, 110-111.
Proto-Altaic: *àlu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: good, beautiful
Russian meaning: хороший, красивый
Mongolian: *(h)olig
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ala
Korean: *àr-
Japanese: *ùrùpà-
Comments: SKE 14. Kor. has a usual "verbal" low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *aĺV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fresh crops, germinated seeds
Russian meaning: проросшие семена, молодые злаки
Turkic: *(i)ăĺ-
Mongolian: *(h)alir-su
Tungus-Manchu: *alu-
Comments: A Western isogloss: outside the Western area cf. perhaps OJ azami 'sow-thistle'.
Proto-Altaic: *ámbe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: heavy, big
Russian meaning: тяжелый, большой
Mongolian: *amban
Tungus-Manchu: *amba-
Korean: *mɨ̀-
Japanese: *ǝ́m(p)ǝ́-
Comments: Martin 233, АПиПЯЯ 103, 277. Kor. has lost the initial vowel, as in many other cases (*mɨ̀- < *ǝ̀mɨ̀-). Rozycki 17 supposes Man. > Mong. which is not excluded.
Proto-Altaic: *amča
Meaning: plough
Russian meaning: плуг
Turkic: *amač
Mongolian: *anǯi-sun
Tungus-Manchu: *anǯa
Japanese: *anti
Comments: Ozawa 312-313, ТМС 1, 43. An interesting common Altaic cultural term. The TM forms could be < Mong. (see Rozycki 19), but the absence of -su(n) (universally present in the Mong. form) suggests rather their genuine nature.
Proto-Altaic: *ắmo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mouth; taste (*amo-t`a, *amo-sa)
Russian meaning: рот; вкус (*amo-t`a,*amo-sa)
Turkic: *um-, *um-sa-
Mongolian: *ama-, *amsa-, *amta
Tungus-Manchu: *amŋa, *amta-
Korean: *más
Japanese: *ámá-, *ántí
Comments: EAS 116, 140, Poppe 68, Колесникова 1972а, 73-77, Martin 248, АПиПЯЯ 46-47, 70, 291, Rozycki 18. A common Altaic root with old derivatives meaning 'taste': *ámo-sa- > Turk. *umsa-, Mong. *amsa-, Kor. *más; *ámo-t`a > Mong. *amta, TM *amta-, Jpn. *ántí. The deriving root itself, with its basic meaning 'mouth', could probably also designate 'to taste' in predicative function (cf. the suffixless Jpn. *ámá- 'tasty, sweet' and PT *um- (*'to taste, have a taste for' > 'to hope'). Despite Doerfer MT 19, TM *amŋa 'mouth' cannot have anything in common with Mong. *haŋga 'crack, hole' (on this form see under *àŋa and *p`éŋi).
Proto-Altaic: *ămV
Meaning: quick, timely
Russian meaning: быстро, своевременно
Turkic: *(i)am-
Mongolian: *(h)am-
Tungus-Manchu: *am-
Korean: *ām
Comments: AKE 6, EAS 117. {An attempt of a Nostratic etymology see in ND 38 *ʔamV 'iste', 'now'}.
Proto-Altaic: *ắni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: very
Russian meaning: очень
Turkic: *eŋ
Mongolian: *aŋ-ka
Tungus-Manchu: *ana-
Korean: *àńí
Comments: SKE 5, EAS 119. Turkic and Mongolian reflect a suffixed form *ắni-k`V, with assimilation *-n- > *-ŋ- (and further reduction in Turkic).
Proto-Altaic: *ant`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hill, slope
Russian meaning: холм, склон
Tungus-Manchu: *antaga
Korean: *ǝntǝk(h)
Japanese: *antuma
Comments: An Eastern isogloss: in Turk. cf. perhaps, Turkm. aŋŋat 'sandhill, mound'.
Proto-Altaic: *àŋa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hole, crack, gape
Russian meaning: дыра, щель, зиять
Turkic: *aŋ-
Mongolian: *aŋ, *aŋga-
Tungus-Manchu: *aŋa-
Japanese: *ànà
Comments: Poppe 72, АПиПЯЯ 81. Mong. *aŋga- < *aŋa-ga-.
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