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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *sido ( ~ -u, *si̯udu, š-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: tassel, string
Russian meaning: завязка, ремешок
Turkic: *sɨd-
Mongolian: *siǯim, *sidem-
Korean: *stɨ́i
Comments: SKE 239. Note Khak. sɨzɨm = PM *siǯim, but hardly a loan from Mongolian, and pointing to a common derivative *sido-mV.
Proto-Altaic: *sidu ( ~ -o, -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rub off, peel off
Russian meaning: стирать, соскабливать
Turkic: *sɨdɨr-
Mongolian: *sidur-
Tungus-Manchu: *sidu-
Comments: KW 367, Лексика 380-381, Doerfer MT 50-51, Rozycki 180 (but hardly borrowed in TM < Mong.). A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sidV ( ~ z-, -i̯a-)
Meaning: young boy or girl
Russian meaning: мальчик, девочка
Tungus-Manchu: *sida-
Korean: *stắr
Comments: A Tung.-Kor. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sĭ̀gà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: border, interval
Russian meaning: граница, промежуток
Turkic: *sɨgra
Tungus-Manchu: *sig-
Japanese: *sàkàpì
Comments: The root is very sparsely attested in Turkic, but the attestations are archaic and the root seems generally reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *sĭ̀gà ( ~ z-)
Meaning: sigh, holding breath
Russian meaning: вздох, задержка дыхания
Mongolian: *seɣüre-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *sigu-
Japanese: *sàkùrì
Comments: Cf. *soge.
Proto-Altaic: *sígá ( ~ z-)
Meaning: to look, search
Russian meaning: смотреть, искать
Mongolian: *sigiɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *sig-
Korean: *čhắč-
Japanese: *sánk-
Comments: ТМС 2, 78, Martin 236, Martin 1996, 27. Kor. *čhắč- is an assimilation < *sVhắč- = PJ *sá(n)kas-.
Proto-Altaic: *sigí ( ~ z-, -e, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: rain, (snow) storm
Russian meaning: ливень, метель
Mongolian: *siɣurga
Tungus-Manchu: *sig-
Japanese: *sinkúrai
Comments: Miller 1976, 378; 1985, 149.
Proto-Altaic: *sĭ̀gó
Meaning: thick growth
Russian meaning: чаща, заросли
Mongolian: *siguj
Tungus-Manchu: *sigǖ
Japanese: *sìnkài-
Comments: KW 367, Poppe 30, 58, АПиПЯЯ 79, Rozycki 197. The TM form is classified as a borrowing from Mong. by Doerfer MT 47, which cannot be excluded.
Proto-Altaic: *sĭgò
Meaning: deer, horned animal
Russian meaning: олень, рогатое животное
Turkic: *sɨg-
Mongolian: *seɣenek ( ~ -i-)
Tungus-Manchu: *sig- / *seg-
Japanese: *sika
Comments: KW 329, Лексика 153, Miller 1985, 146, 1986, 49. Cf. *sák`a and *sūku.
Proto-Altaic: *sĭ́gú ( ~ *š-)
Meaning: to insert
Russian meaning: вставлять
Turkic: *sɨg-
Mongolian: *siɣa-
Japanese: *súnká-
Comments: VEWT 418. Cf. *si̯ŏ́k`ù. Mong. has also sige-, siged- 'to get stuck, become inserted' - which is compared in KW 356 with PT *sik- 'coire'.
Proto-Altaic: *sĭ̀jŋò
Meaning: gift, offer
Russian meaning: дар, приношение
Turkic: *sɨjŋ
Mongolian: *süj
Tungus-Manchu: *siŋu-
Japanese: *sǝ̀nàpà-
Comments: Mong. *süj probably (with a rather usual vowel interaction) < *sijü.
Proto-Altaic: *sìjp`ó
Meaning: to press, knead
Russian meaning: давить, мять
Turkic: *sɨjpa-
Mongolian: *sibka(r)-
Tungus-Manchu: *sip-
Korean: *spù-pɨ́i-
Japanese: *sìmpò-r-
Comments: Ozawa 220-221. Kor. has a usual vowel reduction between a fricative and a stop.
Proto-Altaic: *siju
Meaning: ear-ring
Russian meaning: ушная серьга
Turkic: *sɨrga
Mongolian: *süji-ken
Tungus-Manchu: *sia-kan
Comments: A Western isogloss. It looks as if it were derived from *sī́ju 'bite, break' q. v. - lit. 'an ear-biter' (?).
Proto-Altaic: *sík`è ( ~ š-, *sék`ì)
Meaning: a plant with specific smell or taste
Russian meaning: растение с характерным запахом или вкусом
Mongolian: *sikür
Japanese: *síkími
Comments: Cf. Kor. siktä 'Pleioblastus Simoni'. The root also means "umbrella" in Mong., and as such may be actually identical to *sík`e `detail of the house' (perhaps as an old name of some umbellate plant?).
Proto-Altaic: *sík`e ( ~ -k-)
Meaning: a detail of the house entrance
Russian meaning: деталь порога, входа в дом
Turkic: *sekü
Mongolian: *seg
Tungus-Manchu: *siK-
Japanese: *síkímí
Comments: Cf. *ségì.
Proto-Altaic: *sĭ́k`ù ( ~ š-)
Meaning: to press
Russian meaning: давить
Turkic: *sɨk-
Mongolian: *sika-
Korean: *skằ-
Japanese: *súkú-má-
Comments: EAS 154, KW 344, Владимирцов 324, Poppe 30, 55. Mong. is hardly a borrowing, despite Щербак 1997, 147. The Jpn. form is a partial contamination with *sĭ́lgù q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *sik`V ( ~ z-, -k-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: evening, dream
Russian meaning: вечер, сон
Tungus-Manchu: *sikse
Korean: *skú-m
Comments: A Tung.-Kor. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sìlá
Meaning: (almost) completely, additionally
Russian meaning: (почти) полностью, дополнительно
Turkic: *sil ?
Mongolian: *sila
Tungus-Manchu: *sila
Japanese: *sàrá
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 276. Martin (1996, 237) compares the Jpn. form with Kor. sái 'new', but this word has probably a different origin (see *zèjńa). The Turkic form is very poorly attested (only in MK's phrase) and somewhat dubious.
Proto-Altaic: *sila
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dew, liquid; hoar-frost
Russian meaning: роса, влага; иней
Turkic: *sil-
Mongolian: *sil-
Tungus-Manchu: *sile-
Korean: *sǝ̀rí
Comments: SKE 230, EAS 71-72, VEWT 435. Cf. also Old Koguryo *salgan 'frost' (Miller 1979, 8).
Proto-Altaic: *sĭ́lgù
Meaning: to tremble, quiver, be benumbed
Russian meaning: дрожать, цепенеть
Turkic: *silk-
Mongolian: *silgeɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *silgü-
Korean: *sir-
Japanese: *súkúm-
Comments: EAS 71, 122, KW 357, SKE 233, 235, Poppe 30, 76. Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turkic, despite Щербак 1997, 144; Tung. is hardly borrowed from Mong., despite Doerfer MT 46. The meaning in Kor. and Jpn. may reflect the influence of another root, PA *saŕi q. v.; in Jpn. there is an additional contamination with *sĭ́k`u 'press' q. v.
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