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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *sera ( ~ -u, -o)
Meaning: a k. of garlic
Russian meaning: вид чеснока
Turkic: *sarɨmsak
Mongolian: *sar-
Tungus-Manchu: *sergu- ( ~ -ǯ-)
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *seri
Meaning: table, prop
Russian meaning: стол, подставка
Turkic: *serü
Mongolian: *sireɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *seri
Korean: *sìr'ǝ́i
Japanese: *sì(n)tí
Comments: Lee 1958, 116 (Kor.-TM), Лексика 520. The Kor.-Jpn. tones are irregular, perhaps because of some interaction between this root and {*si̯ṓjru}, *ši̯ṑri q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *s[é]rko
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of blossoming bush
Russian meaning: вид цветущего кустарника
Turkic: {Oghuz sorgun 'a k. of willow'}
Mongolian: *surgar
Tungus-Manchu: *seŋkürē
Korean: *sằrkó
Japanese: *sákúra
Comments: The etymology seems plausible, despite some phonetic problems, both explainable as metatheses in an expressive plant name: Mong. surgar instead of an expected *sargur, and TM *seŋkürē instead of an expected *serkü-(ŋē?). Cf. *sáro, with a possibility of contaminations.
Proto-Altaic: *sero
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be curved, coiled
Russian meaning: искривляться, извиваться
Turkic: *sạr-
Mongolian: *sariwu
Korean: *sàrí- / *sǝ̀rí-
Japanese: *sǝr- ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: SKE 224. The vowel in Kor. is aberrant (one would expect *ă); otherwise quite regular.
Proto-Altaic: *seru(k`V) ( ~ z-)
Meaning: a k. of box or bag
Russian meaning: вид ящика или сумки
Mongolian: *sarku
Tungus-Manchu: *seruk
Korean: *sǝ̀rk
Japanese: *sùr(u)ì
Comments: Tone correspondences are not quite clear; the Kor. word is alternatively compared (see Lee 1958, 117) with Manchu šulχu 'basket'. Cf. *sóra.
Proto-Altaic: *sèrV̀
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: buttock, to defecate
Russian meaning: ягодицы, испражняться
Turkic: *sɨrɨ- ~ *sarɨ-
Mongolian: *sari-
Tungus-Manchu: *seri(gi)
Japanese: *sìrì
Comments: Because of the uncertainty of Turkic vowel the vocalic reconstruction is not quite certain.
Proto-Altaic: *sése
Meaning: to order, threaten, incite
Russian meaning: приказывать, угрожать, подстрекать
Turkic: *ses
Tungus-Manchu: *sesu-
Korean: *sìskú-
Japanese: *sǝ́sǝ́-
Comments: A suffixed form *sése-k`V is reflected in PT *ses-ke-n- and PK *sìs-kú-.
Proto-Altaic: *sési
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: deer, wild animal
Russian meaning: олень, дичь
Turkic: *sạs-na- (?)
Tungus-Manchu: *sesi-n
Korean: *sàsắm
Japanese: *sisi
Comments: EAS 102, АПиПЯЯ 79. For the Turk. semantics cf. OJ wi-no-sisi 'pig, swine'. The Turkic reflex, however, is not quite secure: there is only an isolated Chuvash word and the vowel reflex seems aberrant; also unclear is the phonology of the Hung. ( < Bulg.) loanword disznó (presupposing *ǯisnaɣ, see MNyTESz 1, 646-647).
Proto-Altaic: *sḕgù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: healthy; blood
Russian meaning: здоровый; кровь
Turkic: *sạg
Mongolian: *saji(n)
Tungus-Manchu: *sēgV-
Korean: *sà'ó-náb-
Japanese: *sùkù-jaka
Comments: EAS 85, KW 319, Владимирцов 266-267, Poppe 29 (Turk.-Mong.; Doerfer TMN 1, 372 refutes the match for absolutely unclear reasons), АПиПЯЯ 289, Мудрак Дисс. 182. The semantic correlation 'blood': 'health, healthy' is rather usual, thus the TM form belongs here with great probability. Kor. has a usual verbal low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *sēma
Meaning: to get lost, deviate
Russian meaning: теряться, заблуждаться
Turkic: *sAm-
Mongolian: *samur-
Tungus-Manchu: *sēm-
Japanese: *sámá-
Comments: High tone in Jpn. is irregular.
Proto-Altaic: *sḗmi
Meaning: scar, pock-mark, stain
Russian meaning: шрам, оспина, пятно
Turkic: *sēm (~-ī-)
Mongolian: *seme-
Tungus-Manchu: *semke
Korean: *sām
Japanese: *símí
Comments: See also notes under *sāmo.
Proto-Altaic: *sḕmi ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: caution, attention
Russian meaning: осторожность, внимание
Tungus-Manchu: *sēme-
Korean: *sàm-
Japanese: *símìas-
Comments: SKE 222-223. An Eastern isogloss; on Jpn. tone see note above.
Proto-Altaic: *sḕnV
Meaning: hole
Russian meaning: дыра
Mongolian: *sen-
Tungus-Manchu: *sēn
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sēri ( ~ z-, -ŕ-)
Meaning: thread, embroidery
Russian meaning: нить, вышивка
Tungus-Manchu: *serē-
Korean: *sīr
Comments: A Tung.-Kor. isogloss. It resembles the 'silk' / 'China' ser-/sen- Wanderwort, so it can actually go back to OC 纖 *sen (MC sjen) - but rendering MC -n with Kor. -r is extremely strange.
Proto-Altaic: *si
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thou
Russian meaning: ты
Turkic: *sẹ-
Tungus-Manchu: *si
Japanese: *si
Comments: EAS 72, АПиПЯЯ 52, 284.
Proto-Altaic: *sìbi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bitter, bitter plant
Russian meaning: горький, горькое растение
Turkic: *sibüt
Mongolian: *sibag
Tungus-Manchu: *sipa ( ~ -b-)
Korean: *psɨ́-
Japanese: *sìmpù- / *sìpǝ̀-
Comments: For the usage of the root to denote bitter plants cf. also OJ sibu-kusa 'sorrel'; perhaps also MKor. psúk 'Artemisia' (which is tempting to identify with Mong. sibag). In Kor. we have a secondary metathesis < *spɨ-, like psɨ́r- < *spɨr- < *šĭp`V 'sweep' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *sĭ̀bi
Meaning: to tuck up, tie up
Russian meaning: засучивать, подвязывать
Turkic: *sib- (*süb-)
Mongolian: *siɣu-
Tungus-Manchu: *sib-
Japanese: *sìmpàr-
Comments: The Jpn. form may be actually a combined reflex of PA *sĭ̀bi, *suba and *ši̯ū̀po, all distinguished only in the Western Altaic branch.
Proto-Altaic: *sibo ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wedge, to wedge
Russian meaning: клин, вбивать клин
Mongolian: *sibaga
Tungus-Manchu: *siba-
Korean: *sobija-ki
Comments: Despite Doerfer MT 69 hardly a loan in TM from Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *sìča ( ~ *š-)
Meaning: nut, cone
Russian meaning: орех, шишка
Turkic: *s[ɨ]ča-kaj
Tungus-Manchu: *sisi
Korean: *čǝ́s / *čās
Comments: Because of assimilations the original initial consonant is not quite clear.
Proto-Altaic: *sidí ( ~ š-)
Meaning: to suspend
Russian meaning: подвешивать
Turkic: *südre-
Mongolian: *sidur-
Korean: *sīd-
Japanese: *sinta-r-
Comments: The Turk. form must go back to *sidüre- ( = Mong. sidur-). In TM cf. perhaps Man. sidara- 'to stretch, straighten', siǯi(r)χun 'straight' (ТМС 2, 79), if not < Mong., as suggested by Rozycki 181).
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