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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ségì ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to litter, mat
Russian meaning: подстилать, циновка
Mongolian: *seg-l-
Tungus-Manchu: *seg-
Korean: *skắr-
Japanese: *sík-
Comments: Cf. *sík`e.
Proto-Altaic: *segsV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: nape, back of head
Russian meaning: затылок, задняя часть головы
Turkic: *sügsün
Mongolian: *segseji- / *sogsoji-
Tungus-Manchu: *sekse-
Comments: Лексика 235. A Western isogloss. Turk. *sügsün < *segsün through vowel assimilation.
Proto-Altaic: *segu
Meaning: a k. of small fur animal
Russian meaning: вид мелкого пушного животного
Turkic: *sogur ( ~ -a-)
Mongolian: *sowsar
Tungus-Manchu: *segep(ke)
Comments: A Western isogloss. Mong. *sowsar < *saɣu-sar, with labial attraction.
Proto-Altaic: *sejŋi
Meaning: relative by marriage
Russian meaning: свойственник
Turkic: *siŋil
Tungus-Manchu: *seŋgi
Korean: *sjā'òŋ
Japanese: *sai ( ~ sia)
Comments: KW 328. MKor. also has sjǝ̄'ǝ́r 'bastard' which may be related to the same root. The Jpn. form presupposes a suffixed *sejŋ(i)-gV ( = TM *seŋgi).
Proto-Altaic: *séjra ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: three, a three-part object
Russian meaning: три, трехчастный предмет
Mongolian: *sereɣe
Korean: *sǝ̄ih
Japanese: *sárápí
Comments: SKE 225, PKE 171. Medial *-j- is reconstructed to account for loss of *-r- in Kor. Cf. perhaps also Man. sertej 'three-lipped, having a harelip'; MKor. sǝ̀hɨ̀rǝ̀i, mod. s:ǝre 'rake, harrow' ( = Mong. *sereɣe).
Proto-Altaic: *sèjV
Meaning: thin, rare
Russian meaning: тонкий, редкий
Turkic: *sedre- ( < *sej-re-)
Mongolian: *seji-
Tungus-Manchu: *sēr
Korean: *sǝ́ri
Japanese: *sài- ( ~ *sià-)
Comments: Владимирцов 282, Мудрак Дисс. 101, ЭСТЯ 7, TMN 3, 308-309. Despite Щербак 1997, 144 not borrowed in Mong. < Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *sèk`u
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to preserve, be aware
Russian meaning: сохранять, наблюдать
Turkic: *sạk(ɨ)-
Mongolian: *saki-
Tungus-Manchu: *sexu-
Korean: *sàkí-
Japanese: *sùk-
Comments: KW 318. Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turk., despite TMN 3, 218-219, Щербак 1997, 144. Korean has a usual "verbal" low tone. Cf. *si̯ā́k`a. {For Jap. *sùk- cf. alternatively PT *suk 'greed, envy, greedy'.}
Proto-Altaic: *sela ( ~ -o)
Meaning: bolt, hinge
Russian meaning: защелка, петля
Turkic: *salma / *salŋu
Mongolian: *silbi-
Tungus-Manchu: *selu-(mi)-
Japanese: *saru
Comments: A common Altaic derivative *sela-mV is reflected in PTM *selu-mi-, PT *sal-ma and possibly (with denasalization) in Mong. *sil-bi-.
Proto-Altaic: *sèĺbò ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: oar, spoon
Russian meaning: весло, черпак, ложка
Mongolian: *selbi-ɣür
Korean: *súr
Japanese: *sànsì
Comments: A Chinese origin of Kor. súr, suggested in Martin 1996, 92, is quite improbable.
Proto-Altaic: *séle ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mutually
Russian meaning: взаимно
Mongolian: *selü-
Korean: *sǝ̀rɨ̀
Japanese: *sǝ́rǝ́-p-
Comments: KW 322.
Proto-Altaic: *sĕme (-a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fat
Russian meaning: жир
Turkic: *semiŕ
Mongolian: *semǯi
Tungus-Manchu: *semesik
Korean: *sam
Comments: EAS 71, KW 323, Poppe 29, Дыбо 14. It is interesting to note OJ same-nuri 'a way of applying varnish' (if same- here is not = sama- 'to fade'). Despite Poppe 1974, 120, *-ǯi in Mong. is a quite common suffix (see Poppe 1973, 234) and the Mong. form can hardly be regarded as borrowed < Turkic (Clark 1980, 39 says that the case "defies explanation" (as a borrowing); likewise, the TM forms are difficult to explain as borrowed < Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *sèmpa ( ~ z-, -o)
Meaning: rust
Russian meaning: ржавчина
Tungus-Manchu: *septu / * semtu
Japanese: *sàmp(u)ì
Comments: Miller 1985, 151. A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sĕ̀ni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: heel, ankle
Russian meaning: пятка, щиколотка
Turkic: *sinčök ( ~ -e-)
Tungus-Manchu: *seńu-
Korean: *sín
Comments: In Mong. cf. siɣaqai 'slippers' (if not < siɣa 'knuckle bone').
Proto-Altaic: *seŋa ( ~ -o, -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fringe, hair lock
Russian meaning: бахрома, локон
Turkic: *sAŋak / -at
Mongolian: *saŋ-
Tungus-Manchu: *seŋne
Comments: Лексика 222. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sĕpo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to throw, scatter
Russian meaning: бросать, разбрасывать
Turkic: *sabur-
Mongolian: *sib-
Tungus-Manchu: *sebu-
Korean: *supuk-
Comments: Cf. *săp`í, *sapV (with a possibility of partial mergers).
Proto-Altaic: *sepV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: inner fat, entrails
Russian meaning: внутренний жир, кишки
Mongolian: *sebe-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *sebe
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. Cf. perhaps mod. Turkic forms like Turk. suǯuq 'entrail' etc. - perhaps < PT *sab-čuk.
Proto-Altaic: *sép`à
Meaning: to grip
Russian meaning: хватать
Mongolian: *siɣü(re)-
Tungus-Manchu: *sepe-
Japanese: *sápár-
Comments: Мудрак Дисс. 41. Cf. *ši̯op`a.
Proto-Altaic: *sep`a ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to wave, sway
Russian meaning: махать, качаться
Turkic: *sapɨ-
Mongolian: *sebe-
Tungus-Manchu: *sep-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sèp`ó
Meaning: side, inner side
Russian meaning: сторона, внутренняя сторона
Mongolian: *saba
Korean: *sōp
Japanese: *sǝ̀mpá
Comments: The etymology seems to be satisfactory both phonetically and semantically.
Proto-Altaic: *sèp`ù ( ~ š-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: stick, rod
Russian meaning: палка, прут
Turkic: *sạp
Mongolian: *sibsi-rga
Japanese: *sùpà-dai
Comments: Originally opposed to *sắp`í q. v. as a long twig or stick with a handle (used for punishment etc.).
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