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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *bṓlo ( ~ -e)
Meaning: to be
Russian meaning: быть
Turkic: *bōl-
Mongolian: *bol-
Japanese: *bǝ́r-
Comments: KW 50, Poppe 99, Miller 1981, 851, Street 1985, 639, АПиПЯЯ 68. Doerfer (TMN 2, 358), quite fantastically, links also TM *ō- (what about "Lautgesätze"?) : "altes indoeur. Lw. : *u̯ol- 'wollen'" (isn't this "Omnikomparatismus"?).
Proto-Altaic: *bṓrk`i
Meaning: to cover, cover
Russian meaning: покрывать, покрытие
Turkic: *bȫrk
Mongolian: *bürkü-
Japanese: *púk-
Comments: Cf. *bū̀ri (with possible contaminations).
Proto-Altaic: *buč`o ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to dry on fire, under the sun
Russian meaning: сушить на огне, под солнцем
Mongolian: *bučal-
Tungus-Manchu: *bučī-
Korean: *pčōi-
Japanese: *pǝ̀tǝ̀-pǝr-
Comments: Korean has a usual loss of narrow vowel between a stop and an affricate. Cf. also Kor. č:i- 'to steam, cook' (SKE 32).
Proto-Altaic: *buda
Meaning: to attach, follow, accompany
Russian meaning: прикреплять, следовать, сопровождать
Turkic: *bodu-
Tungus-Manchu: *boda-
Korean: *pǝ̄t
Comments: A rather usual case of secondary nominalizing in Korean (cf. pa 'rope' < *bā́ 'to bind' etc.).
Proto-Altaic: *bùjre
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wrong, bad
Russian meaning: неправильный, плохой
Mongolian: *buruɣu
Korean: *ōi-
Japanese: *bàrǝ̀-
Comments: In TM cf. perhaps Evn. bēruw- 'to slander' (ТМС 1, 127). Medial *-j- should be reconstructed to account for the loss of *-r- in Korean; the Korean word may belong here if it is another case of *b- > 0-, like in úrí 'we' < *bĭ̀-ŕV, ì- 'to be' < *bíju, ù- 'well' < *bi̯ujri, ùsɨ̀rk 'badger' < *borso-k`V.
Proto-Altaic: *bŭ̀kà
Meaning: chain, rim
Russian meaning: цепь, обод
Turkic: *bukagu
Mongolian: *bugu-
Tungus-Manchu: *boKi-
Japanese: *bàkù
Comments: Дыбо 226 (Turc-Mong-TM).
Proto-Altaic: *bŭkrV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: pea, nut, cone
Russian meaning: горох, орех, шишка
Turkic: *burčak
Mongolian: *buɣurčag
Tungus-Manchu: *boKari, *boKa-kta
Korean: *phắs
Comments: Дыбо 10, AKE 15, EAS 58. Phonetically a rather complicated case because of the rare medial cluster *-kr- with non-standard reflexes. Turkic, Mongolian and probably Korean reflect a suffixed form *bukrV-č`V (MKor. phắs = *phắč < *bukVr-č`V); medial -k- in the cluster had disappeared in PT and yielded -ɣ- in Mong. Another derivative from the same root may be the Turk.-Mong. name of various kinds of berries: PT *bögürtlen 'blackberry' etc., Mong. *böɣerel(ǯi)gene 'raspberry etc.' (KW 56).
Proto-Altaic: *buk`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to doubt, be stupid
Russian meaning: сомневаться, быть глупым
Mongolian: *bukinid-
Tungus-Manchu: *buK-
Korean: *puki
Comments: One of the many verbs of emotion reconstructed for PA; cf. *pū̀go, and perhaps Mod. Jpn. baka 'fool' (with expressive b-).
Proto-Altaic: *bŭ́li
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to stir, shake, smear
Russian meaning: трясти, помешивать, мазать
Turkic: *bulga-
Mongolian: *büli-
Tungus-Manchu: *bul-
Japanese: *púr-
Comments: See EAS 57-58, 106.
Proto-Altaic: *bŭ̀ĺì ( ~ -o-)
Meaning: joint, sinew
Russian meaning: сустав, сухожилие
Mongolian: *büli-ken
Tungus-Manchu: *bul-
Japanese: *pùsì
Comments: Дыбо 311, Лексика 250-251. {? Cf. PE *uɫiɣ- 'sinew from backbone'}
Proto-Altaic: *bŭ̀ĺo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to pity, be sad
Russian meaning: жалеть, печалиться
Tungus-Manchu: *bulī-
Korean: *pɨ̀rǝ́-
Japanese: *bǝ̀sì-
Comments: Korean has a verbal low tone. An Eastern isogloss, but cf. *bū́ĺa : the two roots are very similar and their reflexes could have been mixed in Turk. and Mong. (which also has a form bulara- (БАМРС) 'to be exhausted, tired').
Proto-Altaic: *bŭlu ( ~ -a, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cloud
Russian meaning: облако
Turkic: *bulut (*bulɨt)
Tungus-Manchu: *bol-
Comments: A Turk.-TM isogloss. A Nostratic etymology (Ural. *pilwe et al.) see in \X<1.2>ОСНЯ\x 1, 179-180.
Proto-Altaic: *bŭlV
Meaning: to grab, find
Russian meaning: хватать, находить
Turkic: *bul-
Mongolian: *buliɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *bule-
Comments: KW 59, VEWT 87. A Western isogloss. In Turkic `find' obviously < `grab, capture', the original meaning being well preserved in PT *bulun `captive, prisoner' (EDT 343).
Proto-Altaic: *bulV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: ice, jelly-like substance
Russian meaning: лед, желеобразное вещество
Turkic: *bul-
Tungus-Manchu: *belu / *bul-
Comments: A Turk.-TM isogloss. ? Cf. Karakh. buldunɨ (MK) 'a k. of milk dish' ( = Evk. buldumna, - if the original meaning was "congeal").
Proto-Altaic: *bŭrdV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: beard
Russian meaning: борода
Turkic: *burut
Mongolian: *burǯi-
Tungus-Manchu: *burgakta (/*gurgakta)
Comments: Лексика 224. A Western isogloss. TM reflects an early assimilation (*burda-kta > *burga-kta) - the process which went on and led to a further assimilation *burga-kta > *gurga-kta in some dialects.
Proto-Altaic: *bŭri ( ~ -ŕ-, -o-, -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to die, perish
Russian meaning: умирать, погибать
Mongolian: *bür-il-
Tungus-Manchu: *bu(r)-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 290, ТМС 1, 99. A Mong-Tung. isogloss. TM demonstrates an exceptional case of loss of *-r- (recoverable in some forms of the paradigm) after an original short vowel, so the root may have been monosyllabic (*bur) in PA.
Proto-Altaic: *bùro ( ~ -o-, -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to break, crush
Russian meaning: ломать
Mongolian: *burči-
Tungus-Manchu: *bur-
Japanese: *bǝ̀r-
Comments: A reconstruction of *-ŕ- is also possible; in the latter case Turkic could have merged the root with *buŕ- < *mi̯uŕu q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *bŭsi ( ~ -o-, -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: kidney {}
Russian meaning: почка {}
Turkic: *bögse(k) < *bös-ge(k)
Mongolian: *büse
Tungus-Manchu: *bosa-kta
Comments: A Western isogloss - but cf. also MKor. khòŋ-phắs 'kidney' (khòŋ 'bean'), where phắs is also folk-etymologically analysed as 'bean', but may in fact continue the same Altaic root.
Proto-Altaic: *bŭ̀té
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: itch, scab
Russian meaning: чесотка, зуд, сыпь
Turkic: *büt-
Mongolian: *bodu(ɣa)
Tungus-Manchu: *butu-
Japanese: *pàtákài
Comments: PJ has irregular devoicing *b- > p- here. Turkic forms may belong here if they are not a specialized semantic development of *büt- 'to finish, end' (a secondary merger is possible).
Proto-Altaic: *bŭ̀t`ù ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to beat, break
Russian meaning: бить, ломать
Mongolian: *buta-
Tungus-Manchu: *bute-, *butekte-
Korean: *putɨ'ič-
Japanese: *pùt-
Comments: Poppe 21, 101; Martin 233.
Total of 2805 records 141 page

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