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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *sám[u]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shaman
Russian meaning: шаман
Mongolian: *süme
Tungus-Manchu: *samā-n
Japanese: *súmiá-
Comments: Ozawa 117-118, JOAL 68. The parallel seems interesting, but front vocalism in Mong. demands some special explanation.
Proto-Altaic: *sámV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fish
Korean: *sam-
Japanese: *sámpá
Comments: Martin 236. Basically a Kor.-Jpn. isogloss, and the precise reconstruction is not quite clear (if *-mp- is to be reconstructed, cf. Man. sampa 'crayfish, crab'?). From other languages one could link a quite isolated Turkish form semek 'fish' (used as a synonym for balɨq).
Proto-Altaic: *sáńo ( ~ z-)
Meaning: hole, interval
Russian meaning: отверстие, промежуток
Tungus-Manchu: *saŋa-
Korean: *sằńí
Comments: A Tung.-Kor. isogloss; valid if TM *saŋa- < *sań-ga-.
Proto-Altaic: *sańV(-k`V)
Meaning: bird dung
Russian meaning: птичий помет
Turkic: *saŋk
Mongolian: *saŋga-
Tungus-Manchu: *sańa
Comments: KW 313, Лексика 151, ЭСТЯ 7. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sanǯV ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hang down, lower
Russian meaning: свисать, опускать
Mongolian: *sanǯi-
Tungus-Manchu: *sanǯika
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. Note also Tar. saŋgila- 'herabhängen (von den Ohren)' (KW 312, VEWT 400) - hardly a loanword from Mong, but phonetically strange (why -g-?).
Proto-Altaic: *saŋe ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to envy
Russian meaning: завидовать
Tungus-Manchu: *saŋgu-
Korean: *sài'ó-
Japanese: *sǝnia-m-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss; Mong. *sinu- 'to covet' would fit semantically, but phonetically rather continues PA *si̯ā́ńi q. v.; cf. also *sĭ̀ni.
Proto-Altaic: *sằŋo (~ *z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cold, cool
Russian meaning: холодный, прохладный
Mongolian: *seɣü-
Tungus-Manchu: *saŋu-n, *saŋu-ksa
Japanese: *sàmù-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 112, 274.
Proto-Altaic: *saŋu(ńV) ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: smoke
Russian meaning: дым
Mongolian: *suwnag
Tungus-Manchu: *saŋńan
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sápa
Meaning: brace, vice
Russian meaning: скоба, тиски
Turkic: *sabak
Mongolian: *sabsalga
Tungus-Manchu: *sabga
Korean: *sàpók
Comments: A common derivative *sápa-kV is reflected in Turkic, TM and Korean.
Proto-Altaic: *sapV ( ~ -e-)
Meaning: to hit, throw
Russian meaning: бить, бросать
Turkic: *saba-
Mongolian: *saba-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss; may be just a specialization of *sĕpo q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *sắp`í
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: stick, pole
Russian meaning: палка, шест
Mongolian: *sibeɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *sap-kun
Korean: *sǝ̀p
Japanese: *sìmpá ~ *símpá
Comments: PKE 177, Martin 227 (Kor.-Jpn.). The accent variants in Jpn. are due to a confusion of PA *sắp`í 'stick' and *sī̀pe 'swamp vegetation' q. v. As opposed to *sèp`u 'long twig, rod' (q. v.) this root must have denoted twigs and branches used as firewood and also suitable for making fences (cf. Mong. sibeɣe 'fence' and OJ siba-gakji 'twig fence').
Proto-Altaic: *sằp`í
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: long hair
Russian meaning: длинные волосы
Turkic: *sapak
Mongolian: *sabaga
Tungus-Manchu: *sap-
Korean: *sap-
Japanese: *sìmpái
Comments: ТМС 2, 64.
Proto-Altaic: *săp`í
Meaning: to sprinkle, scatter
Russian meaning: брызгать, рассеивать
Turkic: *sep-
Mongolian: *sabir- / *sibere-
Tungus-Manchu: *sabda-
Korean: *sp-
Japanese: *simpuki
Comments: An expressive root, but nevertheless with satisfactory correspondences. Korean has a usual vowel reduction in two of the root's derivatives. Mong. *sabir- may be a result of partial contamination with *sĕpo 'throw, scatter' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *sàp`ì
Meaning: shore
Russian meaning: берег
Turkic: *sEp
Tungus-Manchu: *sapsV
Japanese: *sìpǝ̀
Comments: A good common Altaic root, although not very widely represented.
Proto-Altaic: *sara ( ~ *sero, *sura, *si̯ora, *z-)
Meaning: monkey
Russian meaning: обезьяна
Mongolian: *sar-magčin, *sar-bačin
Japanese: *sàrû
Comments: Ozawa 96-99. A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss. ?Cf. perhaps Turk. *sarsal 'weasel' (EDT 854 etc.)
Proto-Altaic: *sarču ( ~ *š-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: locust, dragon-fly
Russian meaning: саранча, стрекоза
Turkic: *sarɨnčga
Mongolian: *čarča-
Tungus-Manchu: *čačaraku
Korean: *čằnčárí
Japanese: *sunsu-musi
Comments: KW 422, Лексика 187. An onomatopoeic insect name, with usual in such a case assimilations.
Proto-Altaic: *saŕi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to get cold, freeze
Russian meaning: замерзать
Turkic: *sAŕak / *sArk-
Mongolian: *ser-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. In Kor. and Jpn. the reflex of this root may have merged with *sĭ́lgù q. v. (cf. PKE 175).
Proto-Altaic: *sark`V
Meaning: to drip, splatter
Russian meaning: капать, плескаться
Turkic: *sark-
Mongolian: *sark-
Tungus-Manchu: *sargi-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Note some of the Turkic derivatives (Kum. sarqɨm 'thin flow', Tat. dial. sarqɨm 'thick whey left after pressing curds' etc., see ЭСТЯ 7) which may speak in favour of the original meaning 'to ooze, be filtered'. In this case the root may actually be derived from *sā̀rV 'to be rare, thinned out' (q. v.) (assuming that length in TM was secondarily shortened); cf. especially the common Western derivative *sār-k`V 'maw used for filtering / fermenting'.
Proto-Altaic: *sáro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of blossoming plant
Russian meaning: вид цветущего растения
Turkic: *sarga-
Mongolian: *sere- / *serke-
Tungus-Manchu: *sara-ča
Japanese: *sátúkí
Comments: Cf. *s[é]rko, with a possibility of contaminations.
Proto-Altaic: *sáŕo
Meaning: fence, village
Russian meaning: забор, деревня
Turkic: *soŕak
Mongolian: *siröge
Tungus-Manchu: *saru
Japanese: *sátuá
Comments: A common derivative *sáŕo-kV is reflected in OT sozaq, PM *sirö-ge and Orok sarụqa.
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