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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *sajk`V
Meaning: knucklebone
Russian meaning: бабка, щиколотка
Turkic: *siaka
Tungus-Manchu: *sajKa
Comments: Дыбо 1993. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss. Not quite reliable because of poor attestation in TM. Note, however, that PM *sigaji 'knucklebone' would be a good match - if it were not derived (or secondarily contaminated?) from *siɣa, see under PA *sìŋù.
Proto-Altaic: *sajo
Meaning: interval, space between
Russian meaning: промежуток, расстояние между
Turkic: *saja-
Mongolian: *söɣem
Tungus-Manchu: *saja
Japanese: *sai ( ~ sia)
Comments: EAS 153. The Jpn. word may be related if one assumes an original meaning 'interval (in general)'. Mong. *söɣem < *seɣöm (with a frequent labialization transfer).
Proto-Altaic: *sajri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to stick out, protrude, stand
Russian meaning: выдаваться, распространяться; стоять
Turkic: *ser-
Mongolian: *sar(b)aji-
Tungus-Manchu: *sara-
Korean: *sjǝ́-
Comments: KW 314, SKE 225, PKE 173, Дыбо 12, АПиПЯЯ 297. The unexpected -b- in Mong. may be due to a mixture with *serbe- 'bristle, stand on end', see under *sirp`a. Medial *-j- is to be reconstructed to account for the loss of *-r- in Kor.
Proto-Altaic: *sắjV
Meaning: shallow, stony place
Russian meaning: отмель, каменистое место
Turkic: *saj
Mongolian: *sajir
Tungus-Manchu: *saj-
Korean: *sā̆i-m
Japanese: *sái ~ *siá
Comments: KW 320, Владимирцов 284, Poppe 29, 67, TMN 3, 236 ("möglich"). In Korean the original root may have interacted with *sắi- 'leak, ooze' < *săjgo q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *sằkà
Meaning: heap, pile, hill
Russian meaning: куча, груда, холм
Turkic: *saka
Tungus-Manchu: *saK-
Korean: *sàh-
Japanese: *sàkà
Comments: Lee 1958, 116 (Kor.-TM). Korean has a verbal low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *sakosako
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: magpie
Russian meaning: сорока
Turkic: *sagɨsgan
Mongolian: *siɣaǯigaj
Tungus-Manchu: *saksa(ki)
Japanese: *kàsàsákì
Comments: KW 354, Дыбо 8, Лексика 175. An onomatopoeic reduplicated root. Cf. other similar bird names: MKor. kāčhí id. (Martin 236), koskori 'oriole'; OJ sazaki (mod. miso-sazai) "японский крапивник"; Karakh. čekik 'lark', TM *čukčeŋē 'кулик'. Ozawa (99-101) compares Mong. (Altan Tobči) čaɣčaɣai, Khalkha cagcxaj 'a k. of small bird' ('чекан, каменка').
Proto-Altaic: *sák`a ( ~ -k-)
Meaning: edge, end (of a stick, pole)
Russian meaning: конец, край (шеста)
Turkic: *sakanak
Tungus-Manchu: *saku-
Japanese: *sákí
Comments: The meaning in Japanese ('edge') must be a generalization of the more concrete earlier 'end (of a stick, pole)'.
Proto-Altaic: *sák`a ( ~ -k-, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: luck in hunting
Russian meaning: удача на охоте
Tungus-Manchu: *saKa
Japanese: *sáki
Comments: A not quite secure Tung.-Jpn. isogloss. Since words for 'hunt' often go back to names of hunted animals, one can think of comparing PT *sajkak ( ~ *sajgak) 'antelope' (attested since Chag., see VEWT 395, ЭСТЯ 7), with the resulting correction of the PA reconstruction to *sajk`a. Cf. also *sĭgò and *sūku.
Proto-Altaic: *sàk`a ( ~ z-)
Meaning: sharp instrument, to cut, split
Russian meaning: вид острого орудия
Tungus-Manchu: *sak-pi
Korean: *sàkí-
Japanese: *sàk-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sak`o ( ~ z-, -u)
Meaning: salt
Russian meaning: соль
Tungus-Manchu: *saKV
Korean: *sòkòm
Comments: A rather dubious Tung.-Kor. isogloss; perhaps a variant of the root *săk`V 'to ferment' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *sàk`ò ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fish
Russian meaning: вид рыбы
Tungus-Manchu: *sakan-
Korean: *sòkóarí
Japanese: *sàkâi (~-ia)
Comments: An Eastern isogloss; cf. perhaps also Oyr. sagalak 'рыбка-урюп', Mong. (L 657) saɣamqa 'salt water fish, perch(?)'. Like in many fish names, details are not clear: note that the TM forms may be actually borrowed from Jpn. sakana `fish' (originally `wine-side dish'). Cf. also *suku.
Proto-Altaic: *sak`u(rV)
Meaning: a k. of stinging insect
Russian meaning: вид кусающего насекомого
Turkic: *sakɨrtka
Mongolian: *sag
Japanese: *su(n)karu
Comments: Лексика 183.
Proto-Altaic: *săk`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to ferment
Russian meaning: бродить, сочиться
Turkic: *sakɨŕ / *sagɨŕ
Mongolian: *saga- / *saka-
Tungus-Manchu: *saku
Korean: *sàk- / sǝ̀k-
Comments: EAS 91, KW 308, SKE 220 (Doerfer's skepticism in TMN 3, 255 is hardly justified). The variation of *-g- and *-k- in Turkic and Mongolian is suspicious (cf. also the Nanai form pointing rather to *-k-), perhaps indicating that we are dealing with a merger of two different roots - cf. also the variety of reflexes in Korean; cf. also *sak`o and *zi̯úko.
Proto-Altaic: *saĺ(b)i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: loose
Russian meaning: расслабленный, расслабляться
Turkic: *seĺ-
Mongolian: *sel(b)-, *salb-
Tungus-Manchu: *sala-
Korean: *sǝr-
Comments: KW 323, SKE 227, EAS 72, Street 1980, 296. Cf. also Mong. salaŋ 'negligent, careless' ( > Kirgh. salaq etc., see ЭСТЯ 7, VEWT 397).
Proto-Altaic: *sali
Meaning: to dislike, neglect
Russian meaning: не любить, пренебрегать
Turkic: *sal-
Tungus-Manchu: *sali- / *sel-
Korean: *sirh-
Japanese: *sira-
Comments: SKE 234.
Proto-Altaic: *salkV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of board, frame
Russian meaning: вид доски, деревянная рама
Turkic: *sāl
Mongolian: *salga
Tungus-Manchu: *salk-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sálo ( ~ *z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be separated
Russian meaning: отделяться
Mongolian: *sal(u)-
Tungus-Manchu: *salga-
Korean: *sằr-
Japanese: *sár-
Comments: KW 309, Martin 245, Martin 1996, 76, Street 1985, 640.
Proto-Altaic: *sáĺo ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to love
Russian meaning: любить
Tungus-Manchu: *sali-
Korean: *sằràŋ
Japanese: *sású-p-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss; but cf. perhaps also Turk.: Chuv. šъldъr 'beautiful' (Ашм. XVII 289), Yak. ɨllar- 'сильно увлекаться'. Cf. also notes to *sa.
Proto-Altaic: *sằmpi
Meaning: quick, short time
Russian meaning: быстрый, короткий промежуток времени
Turkic: *sAp ( ~ -b)
Mongolian: *samba-ga(n)
Tungus-Manchu: *sampa-
Korean: *spằrằ-
Japanese: *sìmpà-raku
Comments: Kor. has a usual vowel reduction between a fricative and a stop.
Proto-Altaic: *sằmù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: tar, soot, fumigation
Russian meaning: деготь, сажа; окуривание
Turkic: *samala ?
Tungus-Manchu: *samŋī-n
Japanese: *sùmì
Comments: Phonetically a good match, but otherwise not quite reliable: if the Turkic parallel is to be removed as a late loanword, the semantic match between 'fumigation' in TM and 'charcoal' in Japanese becomes less convincing.
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