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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *bòdà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: body; intestines, belly
Russian meaning: тело; внутренности, живот
Turkic: *bod
Mongolian: *boda
Japanese: *bàtà
Comments: EAS 57, Poppe 21, 53, KW 48, VEWT 77, АПиПЯЯ 279, Лексика 266. Despite TMN 2, 360, Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *bŏ́dé
Meaning: to jump, trot
Russian meaning: прыгать, скакать
Turkic: *büdi-
Mongolian: *büdüri-
Tungus-Manchu: *buduri-
Korean: *ptùi-
Japanese: *bǝ́ntǝ́r-
Comments: Korean demonstrates a frequent vowel loss between two stops. Note that Mong., TM and Jpn. reflect a common derived stem *bode-rV-.
Proto-Altaic: *bodi ( ~ -e)
Meaning: a k. of platform
Russian meaning: вид платформы
Turkic: *böd
Tungus-Manchu: *bedu- / *budu-
Korean: *ptǝ́i (?)
Comments: Basically a Turk.-Tung. isogloss; the Kor. word may belong here if it is not derived from ptɨ́- 'to float' (q. v.). If the parallel is correct, then most TM languages have a secondary shift u > e after a labial (a very frequent phenomenon there).
Proto-Altaic: *bŏga ( ~ -u, -o)
Meaning: pregnant (of animals); to bear a bastard or miscarry
Russian meaning: беременная (о животных); рожать до срока или вне брака
Turkic: *bogaŕ
Mongolian: *boɣo-
Tungus-Manchu: *bogī-
Korean: *pằi-
Comments: EAS 57, АПиПЯЯ 295. Doerfer's attempt (TMN 2, 348) to refute the Turk.-Tung. parallel for semantic reasons is unsuccessful. The meaning 'slave' in Mong. and Tung. is obviously derived < 'bastard', 'illegal child' (derivation < *boɣo- 'bind' and attempt to derive the TM words for 'slave' < Mong. in Poppe 1972, 96 is unsuccessful). The Kor. word has been secondarily associated with pắi 'belly' (see under {*p`ḕjló}).
Proto-Altaic: *bŏ́gdu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to paint, variegated
Russian meaning: красить, пестрый, пятно
Turkic: *bodo-
Mongolian: *budu-
Tungus-Manchu: *bugdi
Japanese: *púti
Comments: KW 57. Mong. may be < Turk. (see Щербак 1997, 107).
Proto-Altaic: *bògé
Meaning: wizard, holy
Russian meaning: мудрец, святой
Turkic: *bögü
Mongolian: *bogda
Tungus-Manchu: *bugu-ča
Japanese: *bǝ̀nkám-
Comments: One of common Altaic religious terms.
Proto-Altaic: *bojĺe
Meaning: empty, meagre
Russian meaning: пустой, свободный, постный (очищенный)
Turkic: *boĺ
Tungus-Manchu: *bol-
Korean: *pɨi-
Comments: Medial *-j- is reconstructed to account for the loss of *-ĺ- in Korean. Phonetically a good match would be PJ *bǝsa-na- 'small, young (of children)', but the semantics raises some doubt here. Ramstedt (SKE 186) compares Turk. boš with Mong. bulgu 'free, broad' > Kirgh. buluk- 'to try to free smb.'; but we have not found either word in accessible sources.
Proto-Altaic: *bójĺo
Meaning: to learn, be attentive
Russian meaning: учить(ся), быть внимательным
Turkic: *boĺgu-
Mongolian: *bolgu-ɣa-
Korean: *pằihó-
Japanese: *bǝ́sí-pa-
Comments: Street 1980, 287 compares the PT form with Mong. bolba-sun 'trained, educated, mature' (possibly also related as a suffixed form). Medial *-j- should be reconstructed to account for loss of *-ĺ- in Korean.
Proto-Altaic: *bóju
Meaning: esteem
Russian meaning: уважение
Turkic: *bujur-
Mongolian: *boj
Tungus-Manchu: *buje-
Korean: *pằi-hắ-
Japanese: *úja / *bíjá
Comments: Originally we related to this root Mong. beile 'prince of the 3d rank' which is usually considered to be borrowed from Manchu beile id. (cf. also Mong. beise = Man. beise 'prince of the 4th rank'). Both words are rather loans from some third language, perhaps Kitan (and cf. also the Old Bulgarian rank bojla) and may be ultimately related to PT *beg which itself is either < Chinese or < Iranian (see Шервашидзе 1989); but Mong. boji 'care' seems to be a more satisfactory comparison. Both semantically and phonetically the etymology seems quite plausible (except perhaps for the variant -i- vowel in Old Japanese, possibly conditioned by the following -j-).
Proto-Altaic: *bŏ̀kà
Meaning: rib, breast bone
Russian meaning: ребро, грудная кость
Turkic: *bokana
Mongolian: *bogoni
Tungus-Manchu: *boka-
Japanese: *bàkì
Comments: KW 49, Дыбо 5, Лексика 275-276. The Jpn. word could also go back to *bi̯ū̀k`a, but in that case it would rather have a *p-.
Proto-Altaic: *bŏ́ke
Meaning: to lie in ambush
Russian meaning: сидеть в засаде, нападать
Turkic: *buk-
Mongolian: *büg-
Tungus-Manchu: *bokan-
Japanese: *bǝ́ká-s-
Comments: KW 66.
Proto-Altaic: *bŏ̀ku
Meaning: throat, Adam's apple
Russian meaning: горло, кадык
Turkic: *boguŕ (/*bokuŕ)
Mongolian: *bagalǯaɣur
Tungus-Manchu: *bukse
Japanese: *pùkùm-
Comments: KW 28, Дыбо 5, Лексика 231-232. In Mong. the vocalism was influenced by a similar root (Mong. *bakaɣu, *bakalaɣur < *pŭ́k`a q. v.); a remnant of the original root vocalism may be seen in WMong. boɣaɣu 'crop, goitre' (coexisting with baqaɣu) - however, the latter form may as well be a Turkism < Turk. *bokak.
Proto-Altaic: *boĺe
Meaning: an indirect relative
Russian meaning: родственник по браку
Turkic: *böĺük
Mongolian: *büli
Tungus-Manchu: *bulu-
Comments: Tekin 1979, 129-130. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *bŏĺi
Meaning: a k. of cedar, pine
Russian meaning: вид кедра, сосны
Turkic: *böĺ
Mongolian: *bujil- / *büjil-
Tungus-Manchu: *bolgikta
Japanese: *pusi
Comments: Дыбо 11. Mong. *bujil- is a regular dissimilation < *bulil-.
Proto-Altaic: *bóra ( ~ -ŕ-)
Meaning: to divide
Russian meaning: разделять
Tungus-Manchu: *borī-
Korean: *pǝ̄rí-
Japanese: *bár-
Comments: Martin 243. An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *borso(k`V)
Meaning: badger
Russian meaning: барсук
Turkic: *borsuk, *borsmuk
Mongolian: *borki
Korean: *ùsɨ̀rk
Japanese: *bǝ̀sákí, *ùsákí
Comments: The meaning in Jpn. ('hare') is probably a result of contamination with *t`ŏ̀gsu-k`V 'hare' (which should have normally yielded PJ *tusaki); this could also explain the tonal discrepancy between Jpn. and Kor. Korean, as in several other cases, has a loss *b- > *0-; cf. Old Koguryo *wus(i)kam 'rabbit' (see Miller 1979, 10). All languages reflect a trisyllabic form *borso-k`V, with an original diminutive suffix. Loss of -s- in Mong. is somewhat strange; cf. perhaps alternatively TM *barka-na 'bear's cub' > Evk. barka-na, barka-čan, Neg. bajkana, Ud. bakana (ТМС 1, 75).
Proto-Altaic: *bŏ́ru (~ -a,-o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dust; smoke, whirlwind
Russian meaning: пыль; дым, вихрь
Turkic: *bur-uk
Mongolian: *bur-gi- / *bür-gi-
Tungus-Manchu: *bure-ki
Korean: *pằrằ-m
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 288. See ТМС 1, 113 (Mong.-Tung.); despite ОСНЯ 1, 188 the TM root is hardly related to Turk. *bōr (on which see *mā́ro) and to Mong. bur 'dirty, dark'. The Korean root belongs rather here than to Manchu fara- 'to dry' (SKE 191).
Proto-Altaic: *boŕV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: grey
Russian meaning: серый
Turkic: *boŕ
Mongolian: *boro
Comments: KW 51, Владимирцов 361, Poppe 20, 81, ОСНЯ 1, 183. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Despite TMN 2, 335, Щербак 1997, 109, Mong. cannot be borrowed from Turkic.
Proto-Altaic: *bŏ̀t`é
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bind
Russian meaning: связывать
Mongolian: *büči
Tungus-Manchu: *botā-
Korean: *pɨ̀th-
Japanese: *pǝ̀ntǝ̀k-
Comments: Cf. *pŭ̀ti 'quilt, weave' and *p`út`à 'thread, yarn': the roots are sometimes hard to distinguish.
Proto-Altaic: *bṑki ( ~ -e)
Meaning: to stop up
Russian meaning: затыкать, задерживать
Turkic: *bök-
Mongolian: *bögle-
Tungus-Manchu: *bōk-
Comments: EAS 58, KW 54, Poppe 58, 59 (Turk.-Mong.). A Western isogloss. The root is quite well attested in Turkic and borrowing is highly improbable, so Doerfer's (TMN 1, 229) skepticism seems ungrounded. A slight problem is the variation of *-k- and *-g- in Turkic, probably assimilative in this case (*bök- should be the original variant).
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