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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *bi̯údò ( ~ p-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cold, fog
Russian meaning: холод, туман
Turkic: *bud-
Mongolian: *budaŋ
Japanese: *pújù
Comments: A diphthong has to be reconstructed because of the *-j-reflex in Jpn.; cf. also Orok pidul- 'to freeze completely' (of a river) (ТМС 2, 37).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ùdo ( ~ -u)
Meaning: gruel, paste; to swell in water
Russian meaning: каша, клейкая масса; разбухать в воде
Turkic: *botka
Mongolian: *budaɣa
Korean: *pɨ̄d-, *pɨ́dVh
Japanese: *pùjàkà-
Comments: Cf. perhaps also Man. buǯu- 'to cook': the form may go back to PTM *büdigu-. MKor. phɨ́r < *pɨ́rh < *pɨ́rVh < *pɨ́dVh (with an early vowel reduction, which explains the reflex -r as originally intervocalic).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯udu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: down, feather, curly
Russian meaning: пух, перо, курчавый
Turkic: *bɨdɨk (*bɨdńɨk)
Mongolian: *buǯi- / *boǯi-
Tungus-Manchu: *bodu-
Japanese: *pí-n-kai
Comments: KW 58, Владимирцов 174, Poppe 21, 53, Лексика 224. Despite Лексика 223, Turk. *budra 'curls' (ЭСТЯ 2, 245) very probably represents the same root as *bɨdɨk 'moustache' and also belongs here. Jpn. *pí- should be regarded as an early contraction < *bi̯uj- < *bi̯udu.
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯úga
Meaning: wheel, pommel of a saddle
Russian meaning: колесо, лука седла
Mongolian: *büɣü-rge
Korean: *pàhói
Japanese: *bà
Comments: Martin 246. Low tone in Jpn. is probably due to contraction. In Mong. one has to assume *büɣü-rge < *biɣe-r-gü. Cf. Manchu faχun 'rim of a wheel' ( < Kor.?).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ŭ́ge
Meaning: rock, hill
Russian meaning: холм, горка
Turkic: *bögür
Mongolian: *böɣerüg
Tungus-Manchu: *bug-
Korean: *pàhói
Japanese: *bǝ
Comments: Cf. *bū̀k`e, *pā̀ko.
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ugu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: joint
Russian meaning: сустав
Turkic: *bogum
Mongolian: *bog-tu
Tungus-Manchu: *bog-
Japanese: *pu
Comments: KW 53, ЭСТЯ 2, 171; Дыбо 309, Лексика 260.
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ùjlu ( ~ -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: blood
Russian meaning: кровь
Mongolian: *bülüŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *boldu-
Korean: *píh
Comments: Medial *-jl- is reconstructed to account for loss of *-l- in Kor. (-h should be regarded as a suffix, as in a number of other cases).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ujri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: well, spring
Russian meaning: колодец, источник
Mongolian: *bürü-dü
Tungus-Manchu: *bira
Korean: *ù-
Japanese: *bì
Comments: Whitman 1985, 139, 245 (Kor.-Jpn.). Loss of final resonant in Kor. makes us reconstruct the medial -j-, which also explains several other phenomena: *-i-vowel in PTM (-u- would be expected after a labial); *b- in PJ (*p- would be expected before i). Korean has also lost the initial *b-, as in some other cases; cf. in this respect the interesting Old Koguryo and Silla forms: Old Koguryo *wöl, Silla *ŏl (see Miller 1979, 9). Jpn. *bì < *bi̯ujr(i)-gV.
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯uk`e
Meaning: vessel; gourd
Russian meaning: сосуд; тыква
Tungus-Manchu: *buKu-
Korean: *pàk
Japanese: *pùkù(m)pái ( ~ -ia)
Comments: Martin 232. An Eastern isogloss. In Kor. the root could contaminate with *p`ágò (q. v.), which can explain the prosodic irregularity.
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ŭ̀k`í
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bow, bend
Russian meaning: гнуть(ся)
Turkic: *bük-
Mongolian: *bök-
Tungus-Manchu: *buk-
Japanese: *pìnkàm-
Comments: EAS 147, KW 55, Poppe 56, ОСНЯ 1, 191. Despite Doerfer MT 56, TM is hardly borrowed from Mong., and (despite TMN 2, 352) the Turk. and Mong. forms are certainly related. Cf. also Turk. *bok- 'to cross (legs), bend (knees)' (VEWT 79, EDT 311), WMong. boki- (KW 49) 'to bend', reflecting a back-row variant of the same root. Part of the Mongolian (*bög-) and TM forms seem to go back to a variant *bi̯ŭ̀ki.
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ule
Meaning: wick
Russian meaning: фитиль
Turkic: *bilik
Tungus-Manchu: *bulin
Comments: ТМС 1, 108. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ŭ́le
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rub, whet
Russian meaning: тереть, растирать, точить
Turkic: *bile-
Mongolian: *büle-
Tungus-Manchu: *bula
Korean: *pjǝ̀ró
Comments: Turk. *bile- is usually derived from *bij 'edge' (q. v.) which is hardly the case (*bijle- cannot be reconstructed).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ŭ̀lò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to soak, gush forth
Russian meaning: мокнуть, мочить, бить ключом
Turkic: *bulak
Mongolian: *bul(ka)-, *bilka-
Tungus-Manchu: *b[ü]lkü-
Korean: *purɨ- ( ~ -ɨ-)
Japanese: *pùrǝ̀ ( ~ -ua)
Comments: ТМС 1, 108 (TM-Mong.). An expressive root with difficult reconstruction. The two variants in Mong. and TM are probably due to interdialectal borrowing, but direct borrowing from Mong. into TM is hard to justify: the meanings are not in mutual correlation (Mong. bilka- is 'overflow', while bilki- in TM is 'to wet, moisten'; Mong. bulka- is 'to dip, rinse', while TM bulku- is 'to splash'). The Korean reflex is not quite certain (Martin KED 836 considers pulli- to be a factitive of pūd- 'swell' - which is, however, somewhat questionable).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ura
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to abandon, lose
Russian meaning: покидать, терять
Turkic: *bɨrak-
Tungus-Manchu: *burī-
Korean: *pǝ̄ri- / *pằrí-
Japanese: *párà-p- / *pàrá-p-
Comments: SKE 184, 192, Martin 243. The Jpn. form is dubious because of irregular devoicing and somewhat aberrant semantics; cf. also an odd variation between *pằr- and *pǝ̄r- in Kor., suggesting that we may be dealing with more than one root here: one of them could have also resulted in Mong. bara- 'to end, finish'. Turkic has a peculiar disyllabic structure and Ramstedt may be right in suggesting an old compound; for the second part cf. *ek- `to sow' < `to throw' (v. sub *p`èk`a).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ure
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: flea
Russian meaning: блоха
Turkic: *bürče / *bürge
Mongolian: *bürge
Korean: *pjǝ̀rók
Comments: KW 71, SKE 198, ОСНЯ 2, 99-100, Лексика 183. In Turkic one would rather expect *bir-: this variant is indeed reflected in most Oghuz languages; others may have reintroduced -ü- under Mongolian influence.
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯uri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: one
Russian meaning: один
Turkic: *bir
Mongolian: *büri
Korean: *pìrɨ́-
Japanese: *pitǝ
Comments: KW 67, Martin 238, АПиПЯЯ 73, 99, 277. Doerfer (TMN 2, 384) doubts Ramstedt's Turk.-Mong. comparison for phonetic reasons, which is hardly justified: Turkic frequently reveals a secondary delabialization -ir-, -il- < *-ür-, *-ül- (especially after labials).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ùsí ( ~ p-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hide
Russian meaning: прятать(ся)
Turkic: *bus-
Korean: *pskɨ́-
Japanese: *pìsǝ́-ka
Comments: Korean has a usual loss of narrow vowel between a stop and a fricative. The back row in PT is not quite regular (*büs- would be expected). It might be better to reconstruct *biso ( > Turk. *bɨs-, with a subsequent labial assimilation > *bus-). In TM cf. perhaps Nan. busĩ 'rodents' stores' (ТМС 1, 115).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ūgi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of insect
Russian meaning: вид насекомого
Turkic: *bȫg
Mongolian: *böɣe-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *bugu-tuna
Japanese: *pìwǝ̀-musi
Comments: KW 57, VEWT 82-3, АПиПЯЯ 294, Лексика 184. The Jpn. tone seems to contradict Turkic length (but is not sufficiently well attested).
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ū̀k`a ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: side (of body), thigh
Russian meaning: бок, бедро
Turkic: *bɨkɨn
Mongolian: *bokaɣur
Tungus-Manchu: *bōKan
Comments: Дыбо 6, Лексика 280. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *bī́re
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of predator
Russian meaning: вид хищника
Turkic: *bȫrü
Mongolian: *ber-
Tungus-Manchu: *birin
Comments: A Western isogloss. KW 42, Лексика 160. In Turk. one has to suppose a secondary assimilation < *bērü.
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