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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *mi̯ū́ĺi
Meaning: ice, hail
Russian meaning: лед, град
Turkic: *bū(n)ŕ
Mongolian: *möl-sü, *möl-dür
Korean: *múrúi
Japanese: *mínsǝ́-rá-
Comments: EAS 79, SKE 155, Poppe 35, 138. The Turkic form presents biggest problems: it must be explained as a result of dissimilation and contraction - *bū(n)ŕ (cf. obvious traces of nasalization in reflexes) < *būĺ(V)ŕ < *mi̯ū́ĺi-ŕV or even *mi̯ūĺi-dVŕV (cf. Mong. *möldür, Evk. melder-); early loss of *-i- would then also account for the back vowel reflex. All other forms are more or less plausibly united under the protoform *mi̯ū́ĺi.
Proto-Altaic: *mi̯ū̀nǯù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of {} badger
Russian meaning: вид барсука
Mongolian: *minǯi
Tungus-Manchu: *mō[nǯ]ika
Japanese: *mùnsìnà
Comments: The root contains a rare cluster -nǯ- (with not quite clear reflexes in TM); nevertheless, the etymology seems probable.
Proto-Altaic: *mi̯ū̀ri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: water
Russian meaning: вода
Mongolian: *mören
Tungus-Manchu: *mū
Korean: *mɨ́r
Japanese: *mí(-n-tú)
Comments: EAS 79, 147, KW 267, Poppe 35, Lee 1958, 115, Martin 246, ОСНЯ 2, 61, Murayama 1962, 109, Menges 1984, 277-278, АПиПЯЯ 28-29, 69, 86, 278, Rozycki 160. Turkic has preserved the root only within the archaic compound *jag-mur 'rain'. Tone in Jpn. is irregular (probably because of reduction and the position within a compound; suffixless *mi is also attested in OJ, but its accent is unknown); loss of resonant presupposes a suffixed form: *mí < *mi̯ū̀r(i)-gV (cf. Manchu mū-ke).
Proto-Altaic: *m[ī́]ro
Meaning: arrow
Russian meaning: стрела
Turkic: *bǖri
Mongolian: *merge-n
Tungus-Manchu: *m[i]rV
Comments: A Western isogloss. Vocalism is somewhat uncertain.
Proto-Altaic: *módè ( ~ -u-, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bend, circle
Russian meaning: извилина, круг
Tungus-Manchu: *moda-
Korean: *mùd-Vph > *mùrVph
Japanese: *mǝ́tǝ́-pǝr-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 296. An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *móju
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: all, whole
Russian meaning: весь, целый
Tungus-Manchu: *muja-
Korean: *măin
Japanese: *múina
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *mŏ̀k`a ( ~ -u-, -k-)
Meaning: to sow, scatter
Russian meaning: сеять, разбрасывать
Tungus-Manchu: *moK-
Japanese: *màk-
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *mók`ì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: old, aged
Russian meaning: старый, пожилой
Turkic: *bük-tel- (~ö) (?)
Mongolian: *mökü-
Tungus-Manchu: *muxu-
Korean: *muk-
Japanese: *múkási
Comments: Martin 247, Дыбо 13, ТМС 1, 566.
Proto-Altaic: *mŏk`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dirt
Russian meaning: грязь
Turkic: *bok
Mongolian: *moki-
Tungus-Manchu: {*mux-}
Korean: *muk
Comments: Дыбо 10.
Proto-Altaic: *mola ( ~ -u-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: blunt, short
Russian meaning: тупой, короткий
Mongolian: *moli-
Tungus-Manchu: *melu- ~ *mulu-
Japanese: *marV- (?)
Comments: The Jpn. parallel is somewhat dubious (a local Ryukyu word, and the semantic match is not quite convincing).
Proto-Altaic: *móĺe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bite, gnaw
Russian meaning: грызть, глодать
Mongolian: *mölǯi-
Tungus-Manchu: *mul-
Korean: *mɨ̀r-
Japanese: *músír-
Comments: SKE 154, ОСНЯ 2, 70; Ozawa 296-297; АПиПЯЯ 295.
Proto-Altaic: *mòle
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sick, weak
Russian meaning: больной, слабый
Turkic: *bül-
Tungus-Manchu: *mul-
Korean: *mɨră-
Japanese: *mǝ̀rǝ̀-
Comments: Martin 242 (Jpn.-Kor.)
Proto-Altaic: *mólu
Meaning: ridge, corner
Russian meaning: конек (крыши), угол
Turkic: *bul-
Tungus-Manchu: *mulu
Korean: *mằrằ
Japanese: *múná-i
Comments: Lee 1958, 115 (Kor.-TM), Whitman 1985, 183, 237 (Kor.-Jpn.). Despite SKE 139, hardly a loan in Manchu from Kor. In Jpn. we have to assume *múná < *mura-n (cf. Turk. buluŋ); in Turkic - a secondary narrowing (*buluŋ < *boluŋ).
Proto-Altaic: *mónŋo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to knead, press, stroke
Russian meaning: мять, жать, гладить
Turkic: *boŋ
Mongolian: *mun-
Tungus-Manchu: *monŋi-
Korean: *mằn-čí-
Japanese: *mǝ́m- (~-uá-)
Comments: SKE 144, Lee 1958, 114, Лексика 383.
Proto-Altaic: *mórV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: horse
Russian meaning: лошадь
Turkic: *bura (?)
Mongolian: *mori
Tungus-Manchu: *murin
Korean: *mằr
Comments: EAS 79, 141. Somewhat dubious as a PA etymon: the Turkic reflex is questionable, the Tungus forms may be borrowed from Mong., see TMN 1, 507-508, Doerfer MT 25, Rozycki 159 (although the vocalism is not quite satisfactory for a loan); however, the Kor. word is hard to explain as a Mong. borrowing.
Proto-Altaic: *mṓč`a ( ~ -u, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: edge, end
Russian meaning: край, конец
Turkic: *būč-gak, -mak
Tungus-Manchu: *muč-
Korean: *mằčh-
Comments: EAS 79, АПиПЯЯ 76, Дыбо 13.
Proto-Altaic: *mṓjńo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: neck
Russian meaning: шея
Turkic: *bōjn
Mongolian: *mundaɣa
Tungus-Manchu: *moń-ga-n, *moń-pen
Korean: *mjǝ-k
Japanese: *nǝmpV
Comments: EAS 98, Poppe 34, 67 (Turk.-Tung.), АПиПЯЯ 53, 280, Дыбо 5, Лексика 234. In Japanese, unfortunately, only Ryukyu forms are attested, which probably underwent an influence of the PJ root *nǝmp- 'to stretch, lengthen'; still, the origin of the Ryukyu stem from this PA root seems probable. The Kor. form is morphologically = PT *bojnak < *mojńo-k`V; cf. also MKor. mǝ̀ŋ-'ǝ́i 'yoke, harness' with preservation of nasal. The TM form also reflects velar suffixation (*mojn-ga-).
Proto-Altaic: *mṓli
Meaning: to cut into pieces
Russian meaning: резать на куски
Turkic: *bȫl-
Mongolian: *möli-
Tungus-Manchu: *m[o]l-
Korean: *mằrằ-
Comments: PKE 108. In Kor. one has to suppose vocalic assimilation *mằrằ- < *mòrằ- (cf. similarly *k`ṓli).
Proto-Altaic: *mṓńe ( ~ -o)
Meaning: a k. of fruit
Russian meaning: вид плода
Turkic: *bōń-
Mongolian: *mono-su
Tungus-Manchu: *moja- (-ń-?)
Japanese: *mǝ́mǝ́ ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: EAS 123-124, Poppe 36, Мудрак Дисс. 75.
Proto-Altaic: *mṓŋi ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: round
Russian meaning: круглый
Turkic: *bōn-čok
Mongolian: *möɣer
Tungus-Manchu: *muŋu-, *muŋbu-
Korean: *mūŋ-
Comments: OJ mapa-r- 'turn round' may belong here if it goes back to < *moŋ-bV (cf. Tungus forms), although the vocalism is not quite right; cf. also Mong. (dissimilation?) bömbüger 'round', see EAS 116.
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