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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ménrV
Meaning: garlic, onion
Russian meaning: чеснок, лук
Mongolian: *maŋgir, *maŋgina
Tungus-Manchu: *meŋgu-
Korean: *mànắr
Japanese: *mìrà
Comments: SKE 140, Poppe 35, Lee 24, 26, 28. Low tone in Jpn. is probably due to contraction. Cf. also Old Koguryo *maiš 'garlic' (thus in Miller 1979, 15; Lee reads *mail).
Proto-Altaic: *méŋa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shape, face
Russian meaning: форма, лицо
Turkic: *bEŋiŕ
Mongolian: *maji-kaj
Japanese: *mána-i
Comments: For the same semantic relationship cf. PA *mi̯at`i.
Proto-Altaic: *mĕŋa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to run, trot
Russian meaning: бежать, идти рысью
Turkic: *baŋ
Mongolian: *meŋde-
Tungus-Manchu: *meŋ-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *meŋe ( ~ -i, -a)
Meaning: mole, scar
Russian meaning: родинка, шрам
Turkic: *beŋ
Mongolian: *meŋge
Korean: *mǝŋ
Comments: KW 261. Despite TMN 1, 512, Щербак 1997, 129 Mong. is hardly < Turkic (final vowel is unexplained). {Cf. PAA *m[ua]n 'boil, pimple'}
Proto-Altaic: *méŋu
Meaning: whole
Russian meaning: сам; тело
Mongolian: *men-dü
Tungus-Manchu: *meŋde-
Japanese: *mú-i
Comments: KW 261, SKE 151, Martin 226, АПиПЯЯ 69, 280. The Japanese meaning was partially influenced by the root *mḕnò q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *méra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of berry
Russian meaning: вид ягоды
Turkic: *bürü-lgen
Mongolian: *maril
Tungus-Manchu: *m[e]rVŋV
Korean: *mǝ̀r'úi
Comments: ОСНЯ 2, 44, Дыбо 11. Turk. *bürü-lgen < *berü-lgen with labial attraction.
Proto-Altaic: *méru (~-ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: spot
Russian meaning: пятно
Mongolian: *merije- / *marija-
Tungus-Manchu: *merī-
Japanese: *múrá
Comments: Poppe 35, АПиПЯЯ 74. Turk. *beŕe 'to ornament' (ЭСТЯ 2, 105-106) would be a good match; but it may be in fact a crasis < *bedŕe (see *pédá).
Proto-Altaic: *mésV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wild apple, grape
Russian meaning: дикая яблоня, виноград
Tungus-Manchu: *mes(k)u-
Korean: *mǝ̀s
Comments: A Tung.-Kor. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *mèto
Meaning: to ask
Russian meaning: спрашивать
Mongolian: *möči-
Tungus-Manchu: *mete-
Korean: *mūd-
Japanese: *mǝ̀tǝ̀-ma-
Comments: Should be kept distinct from *m[i̯u]ti 'to know, believe' (although contaminations were possible).
Proto-Altaic: *mét`i(-rkV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bird's crop or navel; pudenda
Russian meaning: птичий зоб или пупок; гениталии
Turkic: *böteke
Tungus-Manchu: *motoka
Korean: *mǝ̀rtǝ̀kǝ́n
Japanese: *mitua
Comments: The initial vowel correspondence is not quite clear (probably secondary labialization in PT).
Proto-Altaic: *mét`ò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: most
Russian meaning: самый
Mongolian: *-med
Korean: *mằt
Japanese: *mǝ́tǝ̀-mǝ̀
Comments: SKE 142, EAS 79, Martin 247. Cf. also similar forms (maybe specialized usages of the same root): MKor. mātā̆i / mátắi 'top', Jpn. maT- 'emphatic prefix'; Evk. mātālīkān 'up to the top', moton 'even'.
Proto-Altaic: *mḗča
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: monkey
Russian meaning: обезьяна
Turkic: *bĒčin
Mongolian: *mečin
Japanese: *masi
Comments: Ozawa 98-99, Лексика 168. The Jpn. parallel shows that, despite Clark 1980, 43, there is no need for assuming Mong. < Turk. (which is difficult because of *m-, but still possible; the Mong. variant bečin is certainly < Turkic).
Proto-Altaic: *mḗmV
Meaning: female breast; foster-mother
Russian meaning: женская грудь; кормилица
Turkic: *mēme (*bēme)
Mongolian: *mömü
Tungus-Manchu: *meme
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 281. An obvious "nursery" Western isogloss, thus the PA antiquity is dubious.
Proto-Altaic: *mḕnò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: self, body
Russian meaning: сам, сущность, тело
Turkic: *bu(-n) (?)
Mongolian: *mön
Tungus-Manchu: *mēn
Korean: *móm
Japanese: *mǝ̀nǝ̀
Comments: The Turkic form may belong here if it represents a secondary development *bu(-n) 'this' < *bun 'self'; the vocalism, however, speaks against the comparison (*bạ(-n) would be expected). The root reveals contaminations with *méŋu 'whole' q. v. Illich-Svitych (ОСНЯ 2, 70) compares the Turk.-Mong. stem with PKartv. *m(a)-, PU *mū / *mō etc.
Proto-Altaic: *mìlt`e ( ~ -i)
Meaning: full, fill
Russian meaning: полный, наполнять
Mongolian: *melteji-
Tungus-Manchu: *milte-
Japanese: *mìt-
Comments: KW 260, АПиПЯЯ 111, 278. The root is very similar to *mi̯ólo 'full, fill' and may indeed be derived: *mi̯ol-t`i. Such an explanation, however, would involve a metatony in Japanese and borrowing in TM (milte- < Mong. melte-), so we prefer to separate the two roots for the time being.
Proto-Altaic: *mińa ( ~ -o, -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of grass
Russian meaning: вид травы
Turkic: *bɨńan
Korean: *mìnàrí
Comments: A Turk.-Kor. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *míŋa ( ~ -o, -u)
Meaning: large number, thousand
Russian meaning: большое число, тысяча
Turkic: *bɨŋ
Mongolian: *miŋgan
Comments: EAS 78, Владимирцов 324, Poppe 72. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss, but the Mong. form can hardly be explained as borrowed from Turkic, despite TMN 4, 33, Щербак 1997, 107. Cf. perhaps MKor. màńắn 'forty' < 'big number'?
Proto-Altaic: *mi̯ač`e
Meaning: to move, climb
Russian meaning: двигаться, лезть
Mongolian: *mača-
Tungus-Manchu: *miči-
Korean: *mìčhɨ́-
Comments: One of common Altaic motion verbs.
Proto-Altaic: *mi̯àga
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: glory, praise
Russian meaning: слава, хвала
Turkic: *bAgatur
Mongolian: *magta-
Tungus-Manchu: *m[ia]g-
Korean: *mār
Japanese: *màwǝ̀-s-
Comments: Kor. *mār < *maga-r.
Proto-Altaic: *mi̯ăk`ó
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: illness, stomach sickness
Russian meaning: болезнь, желудочное заболевание
Turkic: *b(i)ăk
Mongolian: *mekeji-
Tungus-Manchu: *muxa-
Japanese: *manka
Comments: The TM-Mong. match suggests that the original meaning was 'stomach sickness', with a later development into a more general 'sickness, disease' and 'misfortune, bad (circumstabces)' elsewhere.
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