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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *màra (~-ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to refuse, quarrel
Russian meaning: отказываться, ссориться
Mongolian: *margu-
Tungus-Manchu: *mari-
Korean: *mār-
Japanese: *màtuàp-
Comments: SKE 138-139, PKE 103, Menges 1984, 277. Despite Doerfer MT 144, hardly borrowed in TM < Mong. In Turk. the root has probably merged with *boŕ- / *buŕ- 'damage, oppress' (cf. also *burul- ~ *borul- 'to be angry', ЭСТЯ 2, 269). The Korean form may be alternatively compared with Mong. melǯe- 'to refuse, refrain'.
Proto-Altaic: *máro (~-ŕ-)
Meaning: to roll, bend
Russian meaning: вертеть, гнуть
Mongolian: *marija-, mirija-
Tungus-Manchu: *mari-
Korean: *mằr-
Japanese: *mát(u)áp-
Comments: The Mong. form is somewhat dubious semantically ('creep up' < 'coil up'?); otherwise the root seems quite reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *maru ( ~ -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: heap, crowd, many
Russian meaning: толпа, куча, множество
Tungus-Manchu: *mar(b)u
Korean: *muri, *múr
Japanese: *mǝ́rǝ́, *múrá
Comments: Martin 229, Whitman 1985, 127, 194, 239, SKE 153, АПиПЯЯ 279. An Eastern isogloss. In MKor. cf. also mɨrɨs 'all, in general'. In Jpn. low tone would be expected; high tone here was probably induced by the similar *mǝ́r- 'to heap up' (see under *mi̯ólo), which also influenced the vowel in *mǝ́rǝ́.
Proto-Altaic: *mása
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: more, stronger
Russian meaning: больше, сильнее
Turkic: *bAsa
Mongolian: *masi
Tungus-Manchu: *masi
Japanese: *más-
Comments: EAS 79, KW 257. TM may be borrowed from Mong. (see Doerfer MT 144).
Proto-Altaic: *mā̀li
Meaning: disease, wound
Russian meaning: болезнь, рана
Turkic: *bAlɨg
Mongolian: *milan
Tungus-Manchu: *māl-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *mā́ńa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: paw, hand
Russian meaning: лапа, кисть руки
Turkic: *bĀń-
Tungus-Manchu: *mańa
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss; cf. perhaps also Mong. (dalnɨ) majā 'шейка лопатки'.
Proto-Altaic: *mā́n[u]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: useless, insufficient
Russian meaning: бесполезный, недостаточный
Turkic: *būn
Tungus-Manchu: *mana-
Japanese: *múná-si-
Comments: Cf. *mùne, *múnu. Turkic *-ū- is irregular here (*bān would be expected).
Proto-Altaic: *mā́ro
Meaning: sand, stony earth, marsh
Russian meaning: песок, каменистая почва, болото
Turkic: *bōr
Mongolian: *mara-
Tungus-Manchu: *mar-
Korean: *mòr'ái
Japanese: *mana-n-kua
Comments: SKE 151 (Turk.-Kor.), АПиПЯЯ 288. In MKor. cf. also a reduplicated form: màmằrằ- 'rough, stony (ground)'. The Jpn. form must be explained as a result of nasal assimilation (*mana- < *mara-n-); but cf. for Jpn. *mana-n-kua alternatively Mong. *maŋka 'long sandy hill' (MGCD 481).
Proto-Altaic: *mébo ( ~ -p-)
Meaning: to shamanize, dance
Russian meaning: камлать, танцевать
Tungus-Manchu: *mebu-
Japanese: *máp-
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *meju
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to shake, sway
Russian meaning: трясти, махать
Turkic: *bań-
Mongolian: *maji-
Tungus-Manchu: *mej-
Korean: *mūi- / *mùi'ú-
Japanese: {*mui 'fan, winnow'}
Comments: See SKE 144, ТМС 1, 564, ОСНЯ 3, 45-47, Дыбо 12. Turkic has a normal transfer of nasalization (*bań- < *maj-).
Proto-Altaic: *mĕ̀ko
Meaning: to pull out
Russian meaning: вытаскивать
Tungus-Manchu: *meK(u)-
Korean: *mắi-
Japanese: *mǝ̀k-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *mék`à
Meaning: to be in a bad position
Russian meaning: быть в затруднительном положении
Mongolian: *mak-
Tungus-Manchu: *meK-
Korean: *màk-
Japanese: *máká-
Comments: Martin 226. Cf. *mak`é.
Proto-Altaic: *mék`ù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: meat; part of body
Russian meaning: мясо; часть тела
Mongolian: *mikan
Tungus-Manchu: *meKile
Japanese: *múkúrua
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 294.
Proto-Altaic: *mĕ̀ĺba ( ~ -p-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to stir up
Russian meaning: помешивать
Tungus-Manchu: *melbi-
Japanese: *mànsì-(p)-
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss. Phonetically the match is precise; as for the meaning, one has to suppose a rather frequent development *'row' > 'stir up' > 'mix'.
Proto-Altaic: *melo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fish
Russian meaning: вид рыбы
Turkic: *bẹl
Tungus-Manchu: *melu
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *mĕlu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of berry
Russian meaning: вид ягоды
Turkic: *bẹleĺ
Mongolian: *mojil-
Tungus-Manchu: *m[e]likte
Comments: Дыбо 11. A Western isogloss. Note traces of nasalization preserved in PT (one could reconstruct *benleĺ or *belenĺ). Mong *mojil- regularly < *molil- ( = *beleĺ).
Proto-Altaic: *mèl[ú]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to become stale, overripe, wither
Russian meaning: становиться затхлым, загустевать, увядать
Tungus-Manchu: *mel-me- ?
Korean: *mằrằ-
Japanese: *mùrá-
Comments: Korean has a "verbal" low tone. Basically a Kor.-Jpn. isogloss; the TM parallel is much more problematic (poorly attested and semantically distant).
Proto-Altaic: *mĕ́ĺǯu ( ~ -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: head
Russian meaning: голова
Turkic: *baĺč
Mongolian: *malǯa-, *melǯe-
Tungus-Manchu: *meli-mu
Korean: *mǝ̀rí
Comments: EAS 109, SKE 146, АПиПЯЯ 31-32, 282, Мудрак Дисс. 90, Лексика 194. Doerfer's (TMN 2, 253) criticism is short ("unklar"). On possible traces in Jpn. see under *k`ŏjli. An unsuccessful attempt of refuting the etymology was undertaken by Vovin 2000, who argues that the attested Old Korean form is 麻帝 MC mạ-tìej [ma-te]. However, it is most probable that MC -t- was used here just to transcribe Korean -r- (since Middle Chinese, as well known, lacked r-). Anyway, it is hardly possible to make any decisions on the basis of very inadequate and scanty Kirim transcriptions.
Proto-Altaic: *ménč`o ( ~ *mi̯ónč`a, -nč-)
Meaning: first of all
Russian meaning: прежде всего
Korean: *mònčjǝ́(i)
Japanese: *mántù
Comments: Martin 248. A Kor.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *meń[o]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dwelling place, village
Russian meaning: жилище, деревня
Mongolian: *maji-kan
Tungus-Manchu: *mēne-
Korean: *mằńằrh
Japanese: *múrà
Comments: The Kor.-Jpn. form is a derivative in *-rV (*-lV). The Tungus form fits very well semantically, but raises some phonetic doubts: vowel length and the quality of -n- (instead *-ń-) do not correspond to other languages. Cf. perhaps Turk. (Oyr.) man 'fence' (VEWT 325). See Vovin 1993, 257.
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