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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ĺip`ú
Meaning: dark red, violet
Russian meaning: темно-красный, фиолетовый
Turkic: *(j)ip-
Mongolian: *ǯibi
Tungus-Manchu: *lipe-
Japanese: *numpa-
Comments: An interesting common Altaic colour term.
Proto-Altaic: *li̯ája
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sound, to sound
Russian meaning: звук, звучать
Mongolian: *najita-
Tungus-Manchu: *leje- / *ńiaja- ( < *liaja-)
Japanese: *nái
Comments: An onomatopoeic root; seems, however, be well enough reconstructable for PA.
Proto-Altaic: *li̯àmba ( ~ *ĺ-, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of big fish
Russian meaning: вид большой рыбы
Tungus-Manchu: *liamba-
Japanese: *nàmà(n)tù
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss; but cf. perhaps also Khak. nomza 'dace' ( < *jom-); Tat. jumba, ǯumba 'burbot' (VEWT 210); {WMo nümer 'осьминог'}.
Proto-Altaic: *li̯àp`[à]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: leaf
Russian meaning: лист
Turkic: *japur-gak
Mongolian: *labči
Korean: *níph
Japanese: *nàpài
Comments: EAS 75, KW 272, Владимирцов 369, Poppe 37, 44, АПиПЯЯ 19, 42, 282, Лексика 112. The Kor. vowel is probably secondary (pointing to a variant *li̯àp`e).
Proto-Altaic: *li̯ap`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Turkic: *japal
Mongolian: *niɣalta
Tungus-Manchu: *lipče
Comments: A Western isogloss. Very scantily represented in Turkic and TM, but probably archaic.
Proto-Altaic: *li̯ŏga
Meaning: green, dark
Russian meaning: зеленый, темный
Turkic: *jạgɨŕ
Mongolian: *nogoɣan
Tungus-Manchu: *ĺog-
Korean: *nò-nắ-
Japanese: *nà
Comments: KW 278, АПиПЯЯ 293, Poppe 38, Doerfer MT 56-57 (Tung.-Mong.). Kor. reflects a form with an -n-suffix and has a usual verbal low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *ĺi̯ŏ̀ki
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to run away
Russian meaning: убегать
Mongolian: *ǯigutu-
Tungus-Manchu: *luktu-
Japanese: *nìnká-
Comments: Ozawa 269. The voicing in Jpn. contradicts unaspirated *-k- in PA: it may be secondary, under the influence of the synonymous *nuànkà-ra- (see *nŭ̀k`e).
Proto-Altaic: *ĺi̯ŏ́mo(ŋa)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: name; spell, divination
Russian meaning: имя; заклинание, гадание
Turkic: *jom, *jom(ŋ)ak
Mongolian: *dom, *domag
Tungus-Manchu: *nim-ŋā-
Korean: *ni'jaki
Japanese: *ná(N)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 69, 110, 276, EAS 51. The verbal correlate for *naN 'name' in PJ is *nǝm- 'to pray'. The noun goes back to the suffixed form *ĺi̯ŏ́m(o)-ŋa (note the recurring *-ŋ-suffix in the reflexes: MKor. nì'jàkì also goes back to *nìŋa-ki < *nimŋa-ki with early cluster simplification). Despite Щербак 1997, 124-125, Mong. cannot be < Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *li̯òmù
Meaning: bow
Russian meaning: лук
Turkic: *jüm-
Mongolian: *lumu
Tungus-Manchu: *liam-
Japanese: *dùmì
Comments: The Jpn. word is hard to separate; initial d- is probably due to influence of *da 'arrow'. If this is the case, one would be also tempted to compare PTM *lukī 'arrow' and PJ *duki 'quiver' - with exactly the same Anlaut correlation. {But see also under *dḕgni}.
Proto-Altaic: *li̯òŋè
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of insect
Russian meaning: вид насекомого
Mongolian: *newne, *neɣüne
Tungus-Manchu: *loŋ-
Japanese: *nǝ̀mì ( ~ -ua-, -ui)
Comments: The root is not well attested and somewhat insecure, denoting some small insect (bug or butterfly). But the correspondences are regular and the match seems possible.
Proto-Altaic: *li̯ùbu ( ~ -i̯a-)
Meaning: resin, clay, dirt
Russian meaning: смола, глина, грязь
Mongolian: *luw-
Tungus-Manchu: *lū
Japanese: *nì ( ~ *nù-i)
Comments: JOAL 102, 1981, 853 (attracting also OJ núr- 'to paint', which seems less plausible because of tone incongruence with *nì; on its etymology see *ni̯úŕe).
Proto-Altaic: *ĺi̯uga(rV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to knead
Russian meaning: месить, давить
Turkic: *jugur- ( ~ -ɨ-)
Mongolian: *ǯiɣura-
Tungus-Manchu: *lug-
Korean: *nǝ̀hɨ́r-
Japanese: *niàr- ( ~ *nàir-)
Comments: KW 482. Despite Щербак 1997, 196, Mong. is not < Turkic.
Proto-Altaic: *li̯u[k]u
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thick, dense
Russian meaning: густой, плотный
Turkic: *jigi / *jɨgɨ
Mongolian: *nigta / *lüg / *lug
Tungus-Manchu: *lōgdi, *luku(tu)
Comments: A Western isogloss. An expressive form with somewhat irregular correspondences; however, despite Doerfer MT 51, TM cannot be explained as borrowed from Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *ĺi̯ul[o]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to ransom, ask
Russian meaning: выкупать, просить
Turkic: *jul-
Mongolian: *doli-
Tungus-Manchu: *l[i]l- ( ~ -ü-)
Japanese: *nai ( ~ *nia)
Comments: KW 94, Poppe 75, Лексика 346 (Turk. *jul- : Mong. *doli-). Despite TMN 4, 315: "das scheint lautlich nicht aufzugehen"), the Turk.-Mong. match is quite satisfactory. The TM and Jpn. parallels are, however, somewhat problematic, because of scarce attestation in TM and phonetic contraction in Japanese (the form may go back to *ĺi̯ul(o)-gV, cf. Turk. *julɨg).
Proto-Altaic: *li̯ŭ̀mo ( ~ ĺ, -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to swallow, drink
Russian meaning: глотать; пить
Tungus-Manchu: *lümŋe-
Korean: *nǝm-ku-
Japanese: *nǝ̀m-
Comments: SKE 164, Poppe 74, Murayama 1962, 110, АПиПЯЯ 19, 69, 105-106, 274. An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ĺi̯ŭ̀p`ù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to sew, pierce
Russian meaning: шить, протыкать
Turkic: *jɨp / *jip
Mongolian: *ǯeɣeg ( < *ǯiɣeg)
Tungus-Manchu: *lup-
Korean: *nupi-
Japanese: *nùp-
Comments: Martin 241 (Kor.-Jpn.), KW 474 (Turk.-Mong.).
Proto-Altaic: *li̯ū́k`a ( ~ -u)
Meaning: seam, to stitch
Russian meaning: шов, стегать
Turkic: *jīk
Mongolian: *log-si-
Tungus-Manchu: *luK-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *lī́gà ( ~ *ĺ-)
Meaning: to weep, cry
Russian meaning: плакать
Turkic: *jɨ̄g-(la-)
Tungus-Manchu: *ligi-
Japanese: *nák-
Comments: Cf. Kor. nɨkki-da 'to weep' (with unclear vowel and gemination; see Martin 242).
Proto-Altaic: *lok`o ( ~ -u-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a cutting instrument
Russian meaning: режущий инструмент
Tungus-Manchu: *loxa
Japanese: *nǝ̀kǝ̂
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *lòŋé ( ~ -u-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: chisel, drill
Russian meaning: долото, бурав
Tungus-Manchu: *luŋu
Japanese: *nǝ̀muí ( ~ -ǝi)
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss. Cf. perhaps Mong. *düji-le- 'to shave' (WMong. düil-, L 279), which would make us reconstruct *ĺoŋe.
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