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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`umV ( ~-o-)
Meaning: weak, lean
Russian meaning: слабый, тощий
Mongolian: *komur, *komsa
Tungus-Manchu: *xum-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ùńe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to burn, get burnt
Russian meaning: гореть, подгорать
Turkic: *köń-
Mongolian: *köɣe
Korean: *kɨ̀ńɨ̀r-
Japanese: *kuànkàra-
Comments: The Jpn. form reflects a suffixed *k`ùńe-KV-.
Proto-Altaic: *k`uŋgo (~-o-)
Meaning: to freeze, snow
Russian meaning: замерзать, снег
Mongolian: *kuŋgar- / *küŋger-
Tungus-Manchu: *xuŋ-da-
Japanese: *kǝnkǝ(r)-
Comments: The Jpn. form may be alternatively compared with PTM *gekti- 'to freeze' (ТМС 1, 178). {Cf. PE *qǝnu 'slush ice' ?}
Proto-Altaic: *k`[ú]ŕa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: pole; finger, toe
Russian meaning: палка; палец
Turkic: *K[a]ŕguk
Mongolian: *kuruɣu, *-gu
Tungus-Manchu: *xurū
Korean: *kàràk
Comments: EAS 88, 113, Цинциус 1984, 118, Дыбо 316-317. The Turkic vowel is not quite clear: cf. the variant *Kuŕguk; perhaps the forms reveal a variation *Kuŕgak / *Kaŕguk in early Turkic.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ùre
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: basket
Russian meaning: корзина
Turkic: *Küri-
Tungus-Manchu: *xurid-
Korean: *kórí
Japanese: *kuà
Comments: Whitman 1985, 148. The Jpn. form is derived from a suffixed *k`ùr(e)-gV. Cf. *kúra(mV).
Proto-Altaic: *k`uŕe ( ~ -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fur animal
Russian meaning: вид животного с мехом
Turkic: *Küŕen
Mongolian: *kürene
Tungus-Manchu: *xur-
Comments: Лексика 163. A Western isogloss. Note also similar names for 'squirrel' in Mong. (keremü; borrowed in Evk. keremun etc., see Doerfer MT 123) and Siberian Turkic languages (Khak. körǝk, Yak. kürǯügäs etc., borrowed in Kalm. kȫrǝg, see KW 243, VEWT 293).
Proto-Altaic: *k`úrgo ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: intestine, belly
Russian meaning: кишки, живот
Turkic: *Kurg-sak
Mongolian: *kurkag
Tungus-Manchu: *xurke-
Korean: *kùrǝ̀i
Comments: KW 188, Лексика 278. The medial cluster behaves not quite regularly because of assimilation (in Mong., where *kurkag < *kurgag, and in TM, where *xurke < *xurge).
Proto-Altaic: *k`[ŭ]ri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rake up
Russian meaning: сгребать
Turkic: *küre-
Mongolian: *kura-, *kurija-
Tungus-Manchu: *xeri- / *xeru-
Japanese: *kur-
Comments: EAS 97, KW 248, Poppe 79, Цинциус 1984, 121-122. The etymology seems quite probable, although the TM vocalism is not clear (a result of some contamination?). For Jpn., however, cf. alternatively PA *kū̀rV 'to cut out' or PA *k`uli 'dig' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`usa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of tree (cedar, oak)
Russian meaning: вид дерева (кедр, дуб)
Mongolian: *kusi
Tungus-Manchu: *xusikta
Japanese: *kasi
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 118. Cf. *kušu. Cf. also Kor. kasi 'acorn' (if not < Jpn.).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ut`V ( ~ -o-, -t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to itch, scab
Russian meaning: чесаться, зудеть
Turkic: *Kotur
Tungus-Manchu: *xutu-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss. See Цинциус 1984, 99-100. {PT also has *Kɨ̄tɨk- 'to tickle', see Egorov 102.}.
Proto-Altaic: *k`uǯV
Meaning: trace, to follow
Russian meaning: след, следовать
Mongolian: *koǯi-
Tungus-Manchu: *xuǯa
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`uǯV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: part of stomach, bladder
Russian meaning: часть желудка, мочевой пузырь
Mongolian: *kuǯirkaj
Tungus-Manchu: *xuǯük
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ū̀čV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of star
Russian meaning: вид звезды
Turkic: *Kučɨk
Tungus-Manchu: *xōsi-kta
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss. For Nostratic parallels (Ural. *kVnśV, PIE *g'hweisdh- 'star') see Sinor 1973, 392-393 (but Mong. hodun should of course be kept apart), Долгопольский 1965, 263.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ū̀jlu ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: ear; to hear
Russian meaning: ухо; слышать
Turkic: *Kul-kak
Mongolian: *kul-ki
Tungus-Manchu: *xūl-
Korean: *kúi
Japanese: *kí-k-
Comments: AKE 11, EAS 142, KW 196, Poppe 18, 75, АПиПЯЯ 52-53, 276, Дыбо 14, Лексика 205. The Mong. form can hardly be explained as a Turk. loanword (despite Щербак 1997, 143; Doerfer in TMN 4, 296 writes: "...unsicher"). Cf. Ordos xulugu 'the ear of animal', Khalkha xulgavč 'eared cap'. The Jpn. form has an irregular high tone (Turk., Tung. and Kor. pointing unanimously to * ̀); this, as well as the vowel -i- is probably due to a contraction. Medial *-jl- has to be reconstructed to account for -i- in Korean.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ū̀ĺa (~-o,-u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of big bird
Russian meaning: вид большой птицы
Turkic: *Kuĺ
Mongolian: *kuladu
Tungus-Manchu: *xōlī
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 281, Дыбо 9, Лексика 168. A Western isogloss. The Turk. form can also be compared with PTM *kila- "a k. of aquatic bird" or *kulV- id.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ū̀ńi ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: knot, to tie knots
Russian meaning: узел, завязывать узлы
Mongolian: *küjir
Tungus-Manchu: *xūńē-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. In other languages cf. perhaps: OT köndegü 'necklace' (EDT 730).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ū́ŕkV
Meaning: glowing coals
Russian meaning: раскаленные уголья
Turkic: *kȫŕ
Tungus-Manchu: *xurk-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss. A Turk.-Mong. derivative of this root may be the name of 'lead', PT *Korguĺ(č)in (see Лексика 407-408, ЭСТЯ 6, 172-174 ), Mong. qorɣalǯi, qorɣolči. If this is the case, there is no need to assume a borrowing either in Turk. < Mong. (despite Лексика ibid.), or in Mong. < Turk. (despite TMN 3, 453, Щербак 1997, 141).
Proto-Altaic: *k`V̀sá ( ~ k-, g-, -č-)
Meaning: hat, umbrella
Russian meaning: шляпа, зонтик
Korean: *kás
Japanese: *kàsá
Comments: EAS 155. Cf. also MKor. kòs-kár 'hat'. Formally this Kor.-Jpn. isogloss may be derived from PA *k`i̯ū̀ča 'skin from animal's paw' (if the original meaning is postulated as 'skin covering'?); however, until some additional information is available, we prefer to keep these two etyma apart.
Proto-Altaic: *la-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: on this side, near
Russian meaning: по эту сторону, близко
Mongolian: *naɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *la-kV, *la-ŋ
Korean: *njǝk
Comments: ТМС 1, 488, АПиПЯЯ 293. Originally a monosyllabic deictic root with directive affixes.
Proto-Altaic: *làbò
Meaning: more, better
Russian meaning: больше, лучше
Turkic: *jaba
Mongolian: *lab / *naj
Tungus-Manchu: *lab-du
Korean: *năboi
Japanese: *nàpǝ́
Comments: SKE 162, Martin 226, АПиПЯЯ 68, Doerfer MT 144 (Mo < TM).
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Total of 2805 records 141 page

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