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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`ṓli
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: lake, basin
Russian meaning: озеро, водоем
Turkic: *[k]ȫl
Mongolian: *küjil-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *xule-
Korean: *kằrắm
Comments: ОСНЯ 1, 306. The Turk. root may also be of a Persian origin (see TMN 3, 645-646). Mong. *küjil- < *küli-l- (with regular dissimilation). Kor. *kằrắm < *kòrắm (with vowel assimilation); cf. also Old Koguryo *kŭăl 'river' (see Miller 1979, 8).
Proto-Altaic: *k`[ō]mo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to soak
Russian meaning: мокнуть, мочить
Turkic: *Kōm
Tungus-Manchu: *xum-
Korean: *kā̆m- / *kắm-
Japanese: *kuam-
Comments: The root seems reliable, despite some irregularities in vocalism.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ṑmu
Meaning: offering, respect
Russian meaning: почести, жертвоприношение
Turkic: *Kom-
Korean: *kōmá
Japanese: *kuma
Comments: Whitman 1985, 191, 223.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ōńi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: ladle
Russian meaning: ложка, черпак
Turkic: *kȫjnek
Mongolian: *kunija
Tungus-Manchu: *xuńa-
Korean: *kùńí
Japanese: *kúm-
Comments: Vovin 1993, 257, Robbeets 2000, 109-110, 122. Cf. also Mong. konak 'gutter', Kor. konägi 'tall jar'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ṓra ( ~ -o, -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to protect, guard
Russian meaning: защищать, хранить
Turkic: *Kōrɨ-
Mongolian: *kori-
Tungus-Manchu: *xurā-
Korean: *kằrí-
Comments: EAS 47, 107, 141, KW 193, SKE 98, Лексика 575. Doerfer (TMN 3, 450) and Щербак (1997, 141) consider Mong. to be borrowed from Turkic, which cannot be excluded.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ṑrV ( ~ -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dung, excrements
Russian meaning: навоз
Mongolian: *korgul
Tungus-Manchu: *xōri-kta
Korean: *kǝrɨm
Comments: ТМС 2, 24.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ubà ( ~ -p-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: joy, joke
Russian meaning: радость, шутка
Turkic: *Kɨb (*Kub)
Tungus-Manchu: *xebī- / *kupī- / *xupī-
Japanese: *kapaju-
Comments: The TM form has a rather peculiar variation of laryngeal features here; the original form must have been *xubī-.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ube ( ~ -p-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fish
Russian meaning: вид рыбы
Mongolian: *kobku
Tungus-Manchu: *xuja ( < *xubi-ja?)
Japanese: *kuàp(u)î
Comments: One of many common Altaic fish names; the precise sort of the fish denoted by the root is not quite clear.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ude
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: affair, trade
Russian meaning: дело, торговля
Turkic: *küdü-
Mongolian: *kuda-ldu-
Tungus-Manchu: *xuda
Comments: A Western isogloss; the Turkic reflex is very scantily attested.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ùdì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of skin working instrument; worked skin
Russian meaning: вид инструмента для обработки шкур; обработанная шкура
Turkic: *kidiŕ
Mongolian: *ködü-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *xudekī
Japanese: *kùtùpìkì
Comments: In Turkic *kidiŕ < *küdiŕ (with secondary vowel assimilation); otherwise correspondences are regular.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ùkè
Meaning: to peel
Russian meaning: сдирать шкуру
Turkic: *Koguĺ (?-k-)
Tungus-Manchu: *xuK-
Japanese: *kuàk-
Comments: The Tung.-Jpn. match seems to be satisfactory, but the Turkic parallel is not quite certain: in PT one would rather expect *Kokuĺ with voiceless -k-, but available attestations seem to point rather to *-g-. {Cf. PE *kaɣǝ-(ru) 'peeled off walrus skin'.}
Proto-Altaic: *k`ùla
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of big fish
Russian meaning: вид большой рыбы
Mongolian: *kalimu
Tungus-Manchu: *xol-sa
Japanese: *kàra-
Comments: Doerfer MT 91 and Rozycki 130 consider Mong. to be borrowed < TM (Evk. kalim etc., see ТМС 1, 366-367); however, the direction of borrowing was probably reverse. This is one of several similar fish names, sometimes difficult to distinguish - see *kalu, *k`ile.
Proto-Altaic: *k`úĺa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bark, scales; scab
Russian meaning: кора, чешуя; струп
Turkic: *Kuĺ
Mongolian: *kolta-su, *koli-
Tungus-Manchu: *xolda-ksa
Japanese: *kásá
Comments: KW 182, Miller 1970, 129, АПиПЯЯ 293. Illich-Svitych (ОСНЯ 1,301, with Uralic parallels) compares Man. kola-, Evk. kūlū- 'to skin', but these are mongolisms (see ТМС 1,407); ТМ *xolda-ksa is a better match for the Mong. form.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ul(g)o
Meaning: reed, rush
Russian meaning: тростник, камыш
Turkic: *Kulga
Mongolian: *kulu-su
Tungus-Manchu: *xulgu-
Korean: *kōr
Comments: KW 196, SKE 121, Цинциус 1984, 114-115, Дыбо 10, Rozycki 217. Cf. also Old Silla *koš 'reed', see Miller 1979, 23.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ŭli
Meaning: yellow, brown, grey
Russian meaning: желтый, коричневый, серый
Turkic: *Kula
Mongolian: *küjilen
Comments: A Turko-Mong. isogloss. Mong. *küjile- regularly < *küli-le- with l-dissimilation. Turk. > Mong. qula (see TMN 3, 507, KW 195); Mong. > Evk. kula, Man. qulan, see Doerfer MT 100 > Kor. kora (mal) (see Lee 1958, 119).
Proto-Altaic: *k`úli ( ~ -o-, -ĺ-)
Meaning: to dig, cave
Russian meaning: копать, яма
Mongolian: *küle-mǯi
Tungus-Manchu: *xulē-
Korean: *kùrhǝ́ŋ
Comments: On a possible Jpn. reflex see under *k`[ŭ]ri.
Proto-Altaic: *k`uli ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to heat, burn
Russian meaning: нагревать, жечь
Turkic: *kül-
Mongolian: *kölči-
Tungus-Manchu: *xuldü
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 281. A Western isogloss: we prefer now to separate MKor. kɨ́rɨ́m = TM *xurum- etc., see {*k`i̯ŭ̀ru(mV)}.
Proto-Altaic: *k`úlo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to roll, turn
Russian meaning: катиться, вертеться
Turkic: *Kul-
Mongolian: *kol-ki-
Tungus-Manchu: *xol- / *xul-
Korean: *kùbɨ̀r-
Japanese: *kǝ́rǝ́-mp-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 288, ОСНЯ 1, 327 (with literature; Illich-Svitych also compares Mong. qoli- 'to mix', but does not list the Turkic and Japanese forms). Cf. also Mong. kölbe- 'to lie on one side' (KW 238), qolbir- `to slip sidewards'. The attribution of some forms is problematic: Turk. *Kul- may reflect a partial contamination with PA *gi̯ŭldo 'to stretch' (q. v.).; the Jpn. and Kor. forms, due to the merger of *r and *l, can actually also reflect PA *ki̯ṓr[i] q. v.; in Jpn. cf. also koro 'round log', korog- 'to roll, rotate'. Note that the MKor. form with -w-, -'- makes the affiliation of the Korean root questionable - unless it is a dissimilative development < *kurb-ɨr-, in which case it would be a morphological structure *k`úlo-bV- = PJ *kǝ́rǝ́mp-, Mong. kölbe-, qolbir-.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ume ( ~ -i̯u-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: black; coal
Russian meaning: черный; уголь
Turkic: *kömür
Korean: *kǝ̄m-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 295. A Turk.-Kor. isogloss (cf. also Old Koguryo *kămul 'black', see Miller 1979, 8; perhaps also Manchu χumara- 'to sully', ТМС 1, 477). The comparison seems quite possible, although the scarcity of reflexes prevents a secure reconstruction of vocalism.
Proto-Altaic: *k`umi ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: tent, temporary dwelling
Russian meaning: шалаш, временное жилище
Turkic: *küme
Mongolian: *kömürge
Tungus-Manchu: *xoma-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
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