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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`ŏjli
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: limb, extremity
Russian meaning: конечность
Turkic: *Kol
Mongolian: *köl
Tungus-Manchu: *xolda-n
Korean: *kūi-mǝ̀rí
Japanese: *kuru-(n)-pusi
Comments: See АПиПЯЯ 286, Цинциус 1984, 96-97, Дыбо 316, Лексика 243, 245. The comparison is quite reliable phonetically; *-jl- has to be assumed to account for the development in Kor. ( > -i-). The semantic side ('arm'/'leg'/'thigh') can be explained if we suppose that the word originally designated a part of the animal body (front or hind leg together with the thigh). Cf. also ТМ *xūl-kse 'sleeve' (probably an original derivation, although the length is not clear), *xul-ŋsi 'shank, shin', PT *koltuk 'armpit' (Лексика 243, TMN 3, 557-558, ЭСТЯ 6, 52-54). It is interesting to speculate on the subject of the identity Kor. *kūi-mǝ̀rí = Jpn. kuru-(n)pusi. In Kor. -mǝ̀rí is certainly to be analysed as "head" (*'leg-head'); the Jpn. form in this case may reflect a dissimilation < *kuru-n-musi, where *musi could be the remnant of PA *mĕ́ĺǯu 'head' (q. v.). The same element in fact may be also present in Jpn. *tu(m)pu-(n)pusi 'ankle, knee' and *kǝmpusi (if, with haplology < *kǝmpu-(n)pusi) 'fist'. One has, of course, to reckon with the possibility of having here rather PJ *pusi 'joint' ( < PA *bŭ̀ĺi q. v.), which would explain the constant emergence of a stop in Jpn.; but the Jpn.-Kor. match (*kūi-mǝ̀rí = kuru(n)pusi) seems to be not accidental.
Proto-Altaic: *k`òké
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: plenty
Russian meaning: много, множество
Turkic: *kök
Mongolian: *kog-si-
Tungus-Manchu: *xugdi
Korean: *kɨh-
Japanese: *kǝ̀kǝ́-ta-
Comments: The meaning 'big' in Korean certainly derives from *'plentiful'. The match between Kor. khɨ- and Jpn. *kǝ̀kǝ́- appears quite satisfactory, despite the attempt of Vovin (2000) to link Kor. *hɨkɨ- with PJ *sùkùnà- 'few': it is hardly possible to analyse the Jpn. word as *'big'-does-not-exist, since all the existing compounds of this type are "noun+-na", not "adjective+-na", and anyway it is hardly possible to separate PJ *sùkùnà- 'few' (adj.) and *sùkùa-(si) 'few' (noun, adverb), see *si̯ŏ́k`ù.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ókì
Meaning: to bind, wrap
Russian meaning: связывать, заворачивать
Turkic: *kök
Mongolian: *kugu-s-
Tungus-Manchu: *xuku-
Japanese: *kúkúr-
Comments: The original meaning should be reconstructed as 'bind', 'wrap' or 'fasten', with the meaning 'lace, sew' secondarily developed within Turkic. Note the morphological match between PTM *xuku-lī- and PJ *kúkú-r- < *k`ókì-lV.
Proto-Altaic: *k`óla ( ~ -u-, -i̯o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to dry, get stale
Russian meaning: сохнуть, терять свежесть
Tungus-Manchu: *xolga
Korean: *korh-
Japanese: *kárá-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 290, SKE 121-122. An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ŏ́ĺba
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: couple, to couple, combine
Russian meaning: пара, сочетать(ся)
Turkic: *Koĺ
Mongolian: *kolbu-
Tungus-Manchu: *xulbü-
Korean: *kā̆rb-
Japanese: *kásá
Comments: EAS 109, KW 184, Street 1980, 287. Mong. is not < Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 142, but the Turk. and Mong. forms are certainly related, despite TMN 3, 364.
Proto-Altaic: *k`òlke
Meaning: to row, boat
Russian meaning: грести, лодка
Mongolian: *kölge
Tungus-Manchu: *xulki-
Japanese: *kǝ̀nk-
Comments: The root is possibly derived: without the suffix cf. Mong. qoli- 'to stir'. It is interesting to note Nivkh halq 'boat' (possibly borrowed in TM as *xaliku, see ТМС 1, 460, 461).
Proto-Altaic: *k`òlmV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shadow, cloud
Russian meaning: тень, облако
Turkic: *köl-
Tungus-Manchu: *KVlm-
Korean: *kúrùm
Japanese: *kùmua-N
Comments: Martin 228, АПиПЯЯ 98, 274. One should also note MKor. kɨ́mɨ́- 'to become dim, hide (of moon etc.)', possibly < *kúrmɨ́- = OJ kumor- id. Cf. also notes to *gḕĺa.
Proto-Altaic: *k`olV (~ -u-, -ĺ-)
Meaning: oak-tree
Russian meaning: дуб
Tungus-Manchu: *xola-
Korean: *kur
Comments: A Tung.-Kor. isogloss. Cf. *kúĺap`V.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ŏ́mi
Meaning: to dig
Russian meaning: копать, черпать
Turkic: *göm-
Tungus-Manchu: *xumu-
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 108-109. A Turko-TM isogloss. The TM form points quite explicitly to *k`-; reasons for voicing in PT are not clear: perhaps a merger with PA *gèmo 'to fill in' (q. v.), which otherwise has no Turkic reflex.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ómp`[e]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fungus
Russian meaning: гриб, плесень
Turkic: *kömbe, *kömbe-lek
Tungus-Manchu: *xum(p)-
Korean: *kōmphúi-
Japanese: *kámp(u)í
Comments: Martin 236, Дыбо 11. Vocalism is not quite certain.
Proto-Altaic: *k`òmu ( ~ -o, -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: drought, hunger
Russian meaning: засуха, голод
Turkic: *Komɨĺ-
Mongolian: *komu-kai
Tungus-Manchu: *xomī-
Korean: *kắmắr
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 97; ЭСТЯ 6, 147-148.
Proto-Altaic: *k`oŋi ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dirt
Russian meaning: грязь
Turkic: *köŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *xońi-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss. TM *xońi- perhaps with secondary palatalization < *xoŋi- (cf. the Orok form xoŋo-kto). Cf. perhaps Jpn. kunuga 'land' (if different from *kúní 'country').
Proto-Altaic: *k`ŏ̀p`e ( ~ -i)
Meaning: film, covering
Russian meaning: пленка, покрытие
Turkic: *köpe
Mongolian: *köɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *xup-
Korean: *kóp
Comments: Владимирцов 212.
Proto-Altaic: *k`óp`ì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: be complete, all
Russian meaning: быть полным, целым, весь
Turkic: *köp
Mongolian: *köb-čin
Tungus-Manchu: *xup-
Korean: *kòp-
Japanese: *kúpá-pa-
Comments: Владимирцов 323, АПиПЯЯ 285, Whitman 223. Cf. *kŏp`V: the Kor.-Jpn. reflexes may in fact reflect both roots.
Proto-Altaic: *k`óp`i ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: foam
Russian meaning: пена
Turkic: *köp-
Mongolian: *köɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *xapu- ~ *xopu-
Korean: *kǝ̀phúm
Comments: EAS 90, Владимирцов 213, AKE 10, KW 243, Poppe 19, 47, Lee 1958, 112, ОСНЯ 1, 364, Ozawa 199-200. Mong. cannot be explained as borrowed < Turk., despite TMN 3, 617, Щербак 1997, 128. The root tends to contaminate with *kup`e 'light' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`óp`ìra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: rift (in a river), bridge
Russian meaning: порог, перекат (на реке), мост
Turkic: *köpür, -üg
Mongolian: *köɣürge
Tungus-Manchu: *xupuru
Japanese: *kápárá
Comments: Владимирцов 213, Poppe 127. Despite TMN 3, 586, Щербак 1997, 128, Mong. cannot be borrowed from Turk. Also, despite MT 136, Jurch. hufuru cannot be a Mong. loanword. In Jpn. we would rather expect *kupara; the -a- vocalism is either a result of later assimilation (in a long word), or an influence of *kápá 'river' (different etymologically, see *k`ébà).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ori
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hill; embankment, boundary
Russian meaning: холм; насыпь, межа
Turkic: *Korum
Mongolian: *küri
Tungus-Manchu: *xurē
Korean: *kòráŋ
Japanese: *kùrùa (~ -ruâ)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 291. The comparison seems satisfactory (the Jpn.-Kor. link see in Kanezawa 47); an alternative Austronesian etymology of the Jpn. word, however, can be found in Kawamoto 1977, 33. Cf. also Mong. kürmen 'basalt'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`oru
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: short; diminish, grow less
Russian meaning: короткий; уменьшаться
Turkic: *Kor(a)-
Mongolian: *koru-
Tungus-Manchu: *xurumü-
Korean: *korh-
Comments: SKE 122, KW 188, ОСНЯ 1, 367, АПиПЯЯ 292, Дыбо 13; further Nostratic parallels see in ОСНЯ 1, 367-368. The Korean reflex is somewhat dubious here, because the root may be the same as korh- < *górà q. v. (possibly a secondary merger). Cf. also Kalm. xor- 'to be afraid, shy', PT *Kor-(u)k- 'to be afraid' (ЭСТЯ 6, 79-80), possibly derived from *k`oru 'grow less, be damaged' - but also possibly a different root.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ŏši ( ~ -e)
Meaning: to entangle, fetter
Russian meaning: запутывать, спутывать
Turkic: *kös-
Mongolian: *kösi-
Tungus-Manchu: *xušī- ( ~ -č-)
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ōkí
Meaning: hinge, hook
Russian meaning: петля, крюк
Turkic: *kök, *köken
Mongolian: *kögene
Tungus-Manchu: *kūkta
Japanese: *kunki
Comments: Initial *k- in PTM is probably due to assimilation (*kūkta < *k`ūkta). Mong. may be < Kypch. One of several similar roots: cf. *gŭ̀k`a, *k`i̯úŋu, *gék`a.
Total of 2805 records 141 page

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