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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ube
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: voice, sound
Russian meaning: голос, звук
Turkic: *kü(b)
Mongolian: *küw-
Tungus-Manchu: *xǖ- (*xüb-)
Korean: *kubɨi-
Japanese: *kǝ̀wâi
Comments: The Mong. form may belong here if it is different from *köɣer 'joy' < PA *kúbé q. v.; there probably occurred a secondary merger in some Mong. dialects.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ubu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: box, coffin
Russian meaning: ящик, гроб
Mongolian: *kob-du, *kob-tu
Tungus-Manchu: *xobu-r / *xebu-r
Korean: *kobVr
Japanese: *k(u)i
Comments: Lee 1958, 112 (TM - Kor.). A Turkic root *K(i)abur 'coffin' may have existed, too: cf. Küär. qaɣur, qoɣur 'coffin' (VEWT 274), as well as the Russian loan from an Old Bulgarian source: ковчег (presupposing *Kabu(r)-čak). But then in most languages it has merged either with *Kapɨrčak ( < PA *k`àp`à 'vessel' q. v.), or with a recent Arabic loanword (qabr 'grave', see VEWT 216 > Turk. kabr, Kum. qabɨr etc.), or with a later Mong. loanword qobuɣur 'tube' (about which see TMN 1, 628, ЭСТЯ 6, 71-72) .
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ùčù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to scrape; claw, sharp stick
Russian meaning: скрести;коготь, острая палочка
Turkic: *Kɨč-
Mongolian: *kučil-
Tungus-Manchu: *xosī-kta
Korean: *koč
Japanese: *kùsì
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 99, Martin 241, Whit 1985, 135, 165, 223, АПиПЯЯ 16, 77, 290.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯údo(rgV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: tail
Russian meaning: хвост
Turkic: *Kudruk
Mongolian: *kudurga
Tungus-Manchu: *xürgü
Korean: *s-kòrí
Comments: Владимирцов 322, Poppe 18, 52, Цинциус 1984а, 113, ОСНЯ 1, 327-328, АПиПЯЯ 53, 284, Дыбо 9, Лексика 145. Mong. is hardly < Turk. (although it is possible, see Щербак 1997, 142). In Korean we have a case of *s-prefixation in body parts (see also under *i̯op`érV, *p`èjńé); note that MKor. kòtằrkái 'tail strap' < Mong. Cf. also Turk. *Kuduskan 'tail strap' (ЭСТЯ 6, 182-183) = WMong. qudusqa (VEWT 297, KW 195, Лексика 554); *Kudu-muč / -mčak 'tail bone' (ЭСТЯ 6, 215-216).
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ujk`è
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: root, stem
Russian meaning: корень, стебель
Turkic: *kök
Tungus-Manchu: *xüj(k)e
Korean: *kòkɨ̀rí, kòkòrí
Japanese: *kùkùi
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 284, Лексика 109, Whitman 1985, 132, 222. Tone correspondence between Kor. and Jpn. is irregular. The TM word belongs here if one reconstructs the rare cluster *-jk- (reflected as -x- in Manchu but as -0- in other languages).
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŭ́jŕo
Meaning: cold wind, fog, North
Russian meaning: холодный ветер, туман, север
Turkic: *Kuŕ
Mongolian: *koji-
Japanese: *kúi-rí
Comments: Дыбо 45. The root contains a rare cluster *-jŕ-. The Jpn. form can belong here if *-ri is originally suffixed (which is in fact quite probable, given the exceptional structure of the word with medial -ui- ~ -ǝi-).
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯uĺe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: person
Russian meaning: человек
Turkic: *kiĺi
Mongolian: *kulunča
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ile ( ~ -ü-)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 283. A Western isogloss. The comparison is quite acceptable, but its reliability is weakened by the isolated nature of the Evenki form within TM. Cf., however, the ethnonym *kile 'Evenki' (ТМС 1, 393) (possibly borrowed in Evk. from a form like *xile or *xüle) and Evn. kịlča 'Yakut'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŭli
Meaning: to wind, plait
Russian meaning: крутить, плести
Turkic: *kül-, *kült-
Mongolian: *küli-
Tungus-Manchu: *xil(i)-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. *kōli, *gū́ldi, *k`ìĺa.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯uml[e]
Meaning: nail, needle
Russian meaning: ноготь, гвоздь, игла
Mongolian: *kimul-su
Tungus-Manchu: *xülme
Korean: *kom(h)
Comments: In Mong. one has to suppose *kimul- < *kumil- (the form qumu(l)- is actually attested in many dialects, and may be archaic).
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯une
Meaning: heavy, load
Russian meaning: тяжелый, груз
Mongolian: *kündü
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ünī-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ùńí
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thread, cloth
Russian meaning: нить, ткань
Turkic: *köjŋe-lek
Mongolian: *kejeŋ
Korean: *kính
Japanese: *kìnú
Comments: In Mong. one would rather expect -ö-; -e- is perhaps a result of assimilation. In Turko-Mongolian -ŋ- is possibly an original suffix (Turk. *köjŋe- < *köń-ŋe-); but a reconstruction like *k`i̯ùńŋí can also not be excluded.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŭnu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to long for, covet (sexually)
Russian meaning: желать, вожделеть (сексуально)
Turkic: *Kɨn-
Mongolian: *kina-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)on-
Japanese: *kunank-
Comments: KW 231 (Turk.-Mong.). See also notes to *gū̀no.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯úŋu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bend, bow
Russian meaning: гнуть, наклонять
Turkic: *Kɨŋ-
Mongolian: *kiji- / *keje-
Tungus-Manchu: *xuŋke- / *kuŋke-
Japanese: *kúnkúm-
Comments: TM and Jpn. forms reflect a velar suffix (or partial reduplication). One of several similar roots which are sometimes difficult to distinguish: cf. *gék`á, *gŭ̀k`a, *k`ōki.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯uŋu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: worm, grub
Russian meaning: червь, личинка
Mongolian: *kiɣur-
Tungus-Manchu: *xuŋVl-
Japanese: *kuà
Comments: The Jpn. form goes back to *k`i̯uŋ(u)-gV.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯up`e
Meaning: to sew
Russian meaning: шить
Turkic: *köpi-
Mongolian: *köbe-
Comments: A Turko-Mong. isogloss. Not quite reliable, because Mong. may be < Turkic (or else connected etymologically with köbe-ge 'edge').
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯uŕa ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to covet
Russian meaning: желать, вожделеть
Turkic: *Kɨŕ
Mongolian: *kuriča-
Tungus-Manchu: *xur-
Comments: ОСНЯ 3, 131-134 (Mong.-Tung.). A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ura ( ~ -u)
Meaning: twenty
Russian meaning: двадцать
Turkic: *Kɨrk
Mongolian: *kori
Tungus-Manchu: *xorin
Comments: Because of the *x- reflex, hardly borrowed in TM from Mong. (despite Doerfer MT 81, Rozycki 169). A Western isogloss: cf. OJ patati '20' < *katati under the influence of *puta- '2' (??).
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ure
Meaning: guest, neighbour
Russian meaning: гость, сосед
Turkic: *Kir-deĺ
Mongolian: *kür-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)üremē- ( ~ -i-)
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯úrge ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to feed, eat
Russian meaning: кормить, есть
Turkic: *KUr(g)-
Mongolian: *korgan
Tungus-Manchu: *xürgi-
Japanese: *kúrá-p-
Comments: The TM and Japanese evidence is rather in favour of the original verbal nature of the root, with the meaning 'fat food, fat' secondarily developed in Mong. (as well as in TM).
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŭrpe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: young (animal, fish)
Russian meaning: молодой (о животных, рыбе)
Turkic: *körpe
Mongolian: *körbe
Tungus-Manchu: *xürbe
Comments: A Western isogloss (but Mong. may be < Turkic).
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