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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŏbe
Meaning: touchwood, tree fungus
Russian meaning: гнилушка, древесный гриб
Turkic: *Kiab
Mongolian: *köbdü
Tungus-Manchu: *xub(u)te
Japanese: *kua
Comments: PTM and PM reflect a common derivative *k`i̯ŏbe-tV.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯oča ( ~ *k`i̯ačo)
Meaning: milt, roe
Russian meaning: молоки
Tungus-Manchu: *xusakta
Korean: *koči
Japanese: *ka(n)su
Comments: An Eastern isogloss (with a somewhat unexpected voicing in Jpn. kazu-).
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯oge
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: poles in a frame
Russian meaning: жерди, доски (в раме)
Turkic: *kegej
Mongolian: *keɣe-sün
Tungus-Manchu: *xuge
Comments: A Western isogloss. Despite Clauson 1965, 165, the Turkic word is not easily explained as a borrowing < Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ójŋo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cold
Russian meaning: холодный
Turkic: *Kujaŋ
Mongolian: *köji-ten
Tungus-Manchu: *xiŋǖ-
Korean: *kjǝ̀ńɨ́r
Japanese: *kǝju-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 53-54, 290; Ozawa 82-84. The cluster *-jŋ- explains the somewhat irregular behaviour of -ŋ-. The meaning 'rheumatism' in Turkic is a usual development < *'cold'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ome
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: marrow
Russian meaning: костный мозг
Turkic: *kEmük
Mongolian: *kemi
Tungus-Manchu: *xumā-n,-kin, *xum-nu
Comments: The Turk.-Mong. comparison see in VEWT 251 (but Manchu kemin is undoubtedly < Mong., see Rozycki 137). АПиПЯЯ 281, Дыбо 315, 262, Лексика 262. On a possible Jpn. reflex see under *k`ep`orV.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯omo(lV)
Meaning: a k. of fragrant and edible plant
Russian meaning: вид пахучего и съедобного растения
Turkic: *Kumlak
Mongolian: *kömeli
Tungus-Manchu: *ximŋe-kte
Japanese: *kamira
Comments: The Turkic word is frequently regarded as a borrowing, either from a Germanic source (EDT 628), or from an Iranian (Ossetic) source (Аб., ЭСТЯ). The Iranian derivation of Osset. xumälläg 'hop', however, raises some phonetic and morphological problems; on the other hand, there are no doubts that the Turkic (Bulgarian) word was borrowed into Mari umla, Hung. komló and Slav. xъmelь (see Егоров 192, ЭСТЯ ibid.). The ultimate Turkic source of other late European names of 'hop' is therefore also not excluded.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŏ́nt`[a]
Meaning: hemp
Russian meaning: конопля
Turkic: *kendir (*kentir)
Tungus-Manchu: *xonta-kta
Japanese: *kántí
Comments: Дыбо 11. A cultural term; the vocalism is not quite certain.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŏŋa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: nose
Russian meaning: нос
Turkic: *K(i)aŋ-(ɨr)-
Mongolian: *ka[m]ar
Tungus-Manchu: *xoŋa-
Korean: *kóh
Japanese: *kan-k-
Comments: KW 186, 190, Владимирцов 251, Martin 242, Poppe 1974, 132, АПиПЯЯ 43-44, 80, 286, Ozawa 191, Цинциус 1984, 84, Дыбо 4, Лексика 216.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯óŋi
Meaning: head of clan
Russian meaning: глава рода, старейшина
Turkic: *K(i)aŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)uŋ-
Korean: *kù'ɨ̀i
Japanese: *kímí
Comments: An important common Altaic social term.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯óp`é
Meaning: soot, to catch fire
Russian meaning: сажа, загораться
Turkic: *Kạp-
Tungus-Manchu: *xupu-ŋksa
Japanese: *kúmpá-
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯óŕa
Meaning: a k. of tree with red berries or red bark
Russian meaning: вид дерева с красными ягодами или красной корой
Turkic: *Kaŕɨlgan / *Karlɨgan
Mongolian: *karg-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)or-
Japanese: *kátúrá
Comments: Absence of diphthong in Turkic is strange.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŏŕo ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: lamb, deer
Russian meaning: ягненок, олень
Turkic: *Koŕɨ
Mongolian: *kurigan
Tungus-Manchu: *xir-
Comments: EAS 46, 113, KW 198, Владимирцов 361, ОСНЯ 1, 302, Новикова 1972, 118, Лексика 433. A Western isogloss. Despite TMN 1, 435, 3, 546, Щербак 1997, 142, Mong. cannot be borrowed from Turkic.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŏ̀sú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Russian meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Mongolian: *kusu-
Tungus-Manchu: *xisi-
Japanese: *kùsú
Comments: Phonetically the Mong., TM and Jpn. form are well compatible; but it is always difficult to deal with Japanese botanical names because of a drastic difference in nature environment between Japan and the continent.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯òše
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to scrape, shave
Russian meaning: скрести, брить
Turkic: *Kas
Mongolian: *kisu-
Tungus-Manchu: *xuši / *kuši
Japanese: *kùsà / *kǝ̀sà-i
Comments: Cf. *k`i̯ùčù. For the Turkic word Helimski 1995 proposed a Sam. etymology ( < PS *käsa 'bark'), which cannot be excluded; in that case the Turkic form should be removed from the comparison. {ND 950 proposes Turk. *Kas : TM *kesi- 'remove scales', *kesi-kte 'fish scales' which would change PA to *kesu-.}
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ŏ́ǯa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: side, direction
Russian meaning: сторона, направление
Turkic: *KAj-
Mongolian: *kaǯiwu
Tungus-Manchu: *xoǯa-n
Korean: *kằč-
Japanese: *kajǝ-r-
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 96. Cf. *kèč`a.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ṑk`ò
Meaning: spine, skeleton
Russian meaning: позвоночник, скелет
Mongolian: *kokima-
Tungus-Manchu: *xīKeri
Japanese: *kakurai
Comments: Cf. also Tuva xokpa 'coccyx'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ṓme
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to throw (upside down)
Russian meaning: кидать, переворачивать вверх дном
Turkic: *Kām-
Mongolian: *kömeri-
Tungus-Manchu: *xumu-
Comments: KW 239, Poppe 19, 68; Цинциус 1984, 109. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ṓro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: worm; gad-fly
Russian meaning: червь; овод
Turkic: *Kūrt
Mongolian: *koro-kai
Tungus-Manchu: *xirga-
Comments: KW 188, АПиПЯЯ 54, 285, Дыбо 8, Лексика 182. A Western isogloss; but cf. also *k`i̯ā̀re.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ōt`e
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of knife or arrow
Russian meaning: вид ножа или стрелы
Turkic: *kēt-men
Mongolian: *kituga
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)utu, -ke
Comments: A Western isogloss. In Turkic one would expect a closed *ẹ̄, but in fact Chuv. katmak points to an open vowel. This may be due to a natural contamination of this root with the reflex of PA *ki̯ā́tu 'sharp tool, notch' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ṑt`ekV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of stinging insect
Russian meaning: вид кусающего насекомого
Turkic: *Kạtku-č
Mongolian: *kedgene
Tungus-Manchu: *xūkte
Korean: *kúitǝ́kí
Comments: Cf. also Kor. kaktagwi 'mosquito'.
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