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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĕ̀ŕo
Meaning: to remunerate, repay
Russian meaning: вознаграждать, отплачивать
Turkic: *Kaŕgan-
Mongolian: *kerig
Tungus-Manchu: *xeri-
Japanese: *kǝ̀tǝ̀-pǝ̀k-
Comments: Note a rare case of Jpn. -t- < *-ŕ- before -ǝ-; this should be probably explained by an early vowel assimilation: *kǝ̀tǝ̀pǝ̀k- < *kǝ̀tùpǝ̀k- (cf. also another attested variant, *kǝ̀tǝ̀pùk-).
Proto-Altaic: *k`er[o]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: frog, toad
Russian meaning: лягушка, жаба
Turkic: *Kɨr-bāka / *Kur-
Tungus-Manchu: *xerekī
Korean: *kòr'oàŋ'í
Comments: An expressive root with not quite regular correspondences.
Proto-Altaic: *k`erV ( ~ -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to go round, walk round
Russian meaning: обходить, ходить вокруг
Mongolian: *kere-, *kerü-
Tungus-Manchu: *xerē-
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 127-128. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĕsa ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: spool, spool string
Russian meaning: катушка, моток, нить из катушки
Turkic: *K(i)as-
Tungus-Manchu: *xesi-
Japanese: *kasai
Comments: Martin (JLTT 441) unites Jpn. kase 'spool' and kase 'fetters, shackles'; the two words, however, are clearly opposed in OJ and seem to have quite different Altaic origin (on *kàsi 'fetters' see under PA *k`ìĺa). PJ *kasai 'spool' surely cannot be separated from PT *K(i)as- 'hoop, hoop brace'; the attribution of PTM *xesi- is less secure: it can belong here if we suppose a semantic development 'spool' > 'spool string' > 'string in net'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĕ̀ta
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to overcome, contend
Russian meaning: преодолевать, состязаться
Turkic: *Katar-
Mongolian: *kadagala-
Tungus-Manchu: *xete-
Japanese: *kàt-
Comments: Martin 1996, 75 (Jpn.-TM).
Proto-Altaic: *k`et[o]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to tear apart, rip
Russian meaning: разрывать, раздирать
Turkic: *Kotar-
Mongolian: *kadu-
Tungus-Manchu: *xetü-
Comments: An expressive Western isogloss; cf. *k`àd[ú], with a possibility of contaminations.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ét`ò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hard
Russian meaning: твердый
Turkic: *Kạt
Mongolian: *kata-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)etu-
Korean: *kùt-
Japanese: *kátá-
Comments: KW 172, Владимирцов 195, 318, SKE 132-133, Martin 233, TMN 1, 410, Lee 1958, 114, АПиПЯЯ 70. Mong. is hardly < Turk. (despite Щербак 1997, 137); Mong. > Man. qata- etc., see Doerfer MT 19, Rozycki 103.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĕǯa ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rip, tear apart
Russian meaning: раздирать, разрывать
Turkic: *Kajɨra-
Mongolian: *kaǯa-
Tungus-Manchu: *xeǯe-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ḗja ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to slide, swim
Russian meaning: скользить, плыть
Turkic: *Kāj-
Mongolian: *kajiba-
Tungus-Manchu: *xeje-
Comments: A rather complicated Western isogloss. The TM form is compared (in SKE 61-62, АПиПЯЯ 297) with Kor. hǝ̀i- 'swim'; this seems now dubious because of the apparent lack of development PA *k`- > Kor. *h-. The Korean word should rather be considered as having lost the initial vowel (*hǝ̀i- < *uhǝ̀i-) and be derived < PA *úku q. v. On the other hand, Evk. kajama, Orok qajama 'bare (not fur-lined) skis' are most probably borrowed < Mong. qaiba 'a k. of oar' (or perhaps from some unattested Yakut form, cf. the meaning 'skis' in Yak.?).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ḗmŋV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wide
Russian meaning: широкий
Turkic: *gēŋ
Mongolian: *kem
Tungus-Manchu: *xemŋe
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 125-126, Дыбо 12. A Western isogloss. In PT *k- would be expected; initial voicing is probably due to the influence of another Altaic root, *kĕ̀ŋi 'empty' (PT *geŋiŕ 'nasal cavity'), cf. its reflexes in Mong. (keŋkeji- 'be wide and empty'; Щербак 1997, 127 actually regards the latter as borrowed from Turkic - which is quite dubious; see TMN 3, 612-613).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ḗnVt`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wall, wall mat
Russian meaning: стена, циновка для стены
Turkic: *K(i)ā(j)nat
Mongolian: *kana(n)
Tungus-Manchu: *xondori
Comments: A Western isogloss. In Turkic the root has merged with *Kājnat 'wing' (see under *kēńa); this homonymy may have influenced Mong., where the stem qana(n) occasionally means 'wing, маховые перья'; but Mong. hardly < Turk., despite TMN 1, 416. In Mong. one has to suppose a reanalysis of *-t as a plural suffix.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ēro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to shout, speak
Russian meaning: кричать, говорить
Turkic: *Kạrga-
Mongolian: *kara/ija-
Tungus-Manchu: *xērī-
Japanese: *kátár-
Comments: Владимирцов 201. Despite Щербак 1997, 134, the Mong. form is hardly borrowed from Turkic. Jpn. has an irregular high tone. On a possible Korean parallel see under *k`i̯ăli.
Proto-Altaic: *k`íbà
Meaning: ash tree
Russian meaning: ясень
Turkic: *Kebrüč
Mongolian: *küjir-
Tungus-Manchu: *xiba-gda
Japanese: *kápiàru(n)tai
Comments: Дыбо 11. Vowels in Mong. and Turk. are not quite clear: probably Mong. *küjir- < *kijür- and Turk. *Kebrüč < *Kibrüč (?).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ibù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: handle
Russian meaning: рукоятка
Turkic: *Kiben-te
Mongolian: *kiɣi-
Tungus-Manchu: *xīb-
Japanese: *kúpá
Comments: Standard Jpn. accent does not correspond to PTM length; however, length here may be compensatory (cf. loss of *-b in most TM languages).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ič`V ( ~ -č-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: small; young of animals
Russian meaning: маленький; детеныш
Turkic: *kičük /-g
Mongolian: *kičig
Comments: KW 233, VEWT 269, АПиПЯЯ 284. A Turkic-Mongolian isogloss; loan is not excluded (see Clark 1980, 43, Щербак 1997, 164), thus the PA antiquity is dubious (cf. also TMN 3, 628-631). The Turkic form may actually be the same root as the somewhat later attested *güčük 'puppy' (see ЭСТЯ 3, 92-93) - which may also be the source of MMong. güčüg; in this case one should rather consider a possibility of comparing Mong. gičige, Khalkha gičij 'bitch' and Evk. guske 'wolf', gusketkēn 'wolf's cub' (ТМС 1, 175).
Proto-Altaic: *k`íla
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hair
Russian meaning: волос
Turkic: *Kɨl(k)
Mongolian: *kilga-su
Tungus-Manchu: *xiń-ŋa- ( < *xil-ŋa-)
Korean: *kār(h)-
Japanese: *kái
Comments: KW 231, Владимирцов 172, Poppe 19, ОСНЯ 1, 352, JOAL 71, 72, Street 1985, 640, АПиПЯЯ 29, 75, 87, 276, Дыбо 4, Мудрак Дисс. 69, Лексика 197. Borrowing in Mong. < Turk. is quite improbable, despite Щербак 1997, 137. Doerfer (TMN 3, 575) expresses doubts ("...wohl nicht angeht"). Jpn. *ká- reflects *k`il(a)-gV (cf. the Turkic and Mong. forms).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ìĺa
Meaning: fetters
Russian meaning: оковы, путы
Turkic: *kiĺe-
Mongolian: *kelbeɣür
Tungus-Manchu: *xil-
Korean: *kár
Japanese: *kàsi
Comments: Cf. *kōli, *gū́ldi, *k`i̯ŭli; on the Jpn. form see also under *k`ĕsa. The Turkic vocalism is completely irregular: perhaps due to a cluster simplification or assimilation? In Mong. cf. also kelke- 'to bead, string, join' ( > Yak., Dolg. kelgij-, see Kaɫ. MEJ 51, Stachowski 143).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ile
Meaning: a k. of fish or lizard
Russian meaning: вид рыбы или ящерицы
Turkic: *keler / *keleŕ / *kelte
Mongolian: *kilim
Tungus-Manchu: *xilkun
Comments: A Western isogloss. In Turkic we are dealing perhaps with a merger of this root with a different one, reflected in Mong. gölbürge 'lizard' (KW 138), Khalkha gürbel (whence Yak. külgeri, kürgeli). Cf. also *kalu, *k`ùla.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ílo
Meaning: stalk, stem
Russian meaning: стебель
Turkic: *Kɨl-ga-
Mongolian: *kil-gana
Tungus-Manchu: *xila-
Korean: *kɨ̀rɨ̀h
Comments: Дыбо 10. Cf. PJ *kǝ̀i, OJ ki 'tree' (if not < Austronesian), compared with Kor. by Whitman 1985, 138-139, 226.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĭ̀régV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cutting tool
Russian meaning: режущий инструмент
Turkic: *kerki
Mongolian: *kiröɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *xirege
Japanese: *kìrí
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 92, Ozawa 80-81. The stem may be connected to PT *kert- (ЭСТЯ 5, 54, Stachowski 145), Mong. *kerči- 'to cut' ( > Evk. kerči- etc., ТМС 1, 453, see Doerfer MT 110; the two words were compared in KW 228, Poppe 19, 51, 83, Menges 1982, and despite Щербак 1997, 127, Mong. kerči- is hardly borrowed < Turk.): we may be dealing with two derivatives (*k`ire-gV vs. *k`ire-t`V). However, direct derivation PT *kerki < *kert-ki is hardly plausible, despite Menges 1944; it rather goes back to *kirge-ki.
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