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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *k`egVnV
Meaning: nine
Russian meaning: девять
Tungus-Manchu: *xegün
Japanese: *kǝkǝnǝ-
Comments: Miller 1985, 143. An exact Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ela ( ~ -o, -u)
Meaning: a k. of small animal
Russian meaning: вид небольшого животного
Turkic: *Keleŋü
Mongolian: *kaliɣun
Tungus-Manchu: *xel-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`éĺe
Meaning: belt, waist
Russian meaning: пояс, поясница
Turkic: *keĺč
Tungus-Manchu: *xelgeńe
Japanese: *kǝ́sí
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 76, 289. Cf. also comments to *si̯oga.
Proto-Altaic: *k`èlńí
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mortar
Russian meaning: ступка
Turkic: *kẹli
Tungus-Manchu: *xelńi
Japanese: *kìnái
Comments: A common Altaic cultural term; despite the rare cluster *-lń- the reconstruction appears reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĕ̀ĺú
Meaning: a small wild animal
Russian meaning: вид мелкого дикого животного
Turkic: *Küĺül
Mongolian: *kerelǯegene
Tungus-Manchu: *xeldegde ( -gǯe)
Japanese: *kùsá(m)pú
Comments: In Turkic one has to suppose vowel assimilation (*Küĺül < *Keĺül), and in Mong. - a regular r/l metathesis ( < *keler-ǯegene). Cf. a number of similar roots, with a possibility of contaminations: see *keru, *k`i̯ū́ĺa, *ki̯ùti, *k`ela.
Proto-Altaic: *k`éma
Meaning: a k. of reed or leek
Russian meaning: вид тростника или лука-порея
Turkic: *Kamɨĺ
Mongolian: *kamgar
Tungus-Manchu: *xeŋgukte
Japanese: *kámá
Comments: Cf. *ki̯omga, *gi̯aŋu, *kemV.
Proto-Altaic: *k`èmá
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sharp, sharp tool
Russian meaning: острый, острое орудие
Tungus-Manchu: *xemer
Japanese: *kàmá
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`èmì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: intestines; liver
Russian meaning: внутренности; печень
Mongolian: *kim
Tungus-Manchu: *xemu-gde
Japanese: *kìmuà
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 111, 276.
Proto-Altaic: *k`eńo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: edge
Russian meaning: край
Turkic: *Kạń
Mongolian: *kajaɣa
Korean: *kā̆ń
Comments: A derivative of the same root may be Mong. kiŋgan 'mountain ridge'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĕ̀ńó
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: light, thin
Russian meaning: легкий, тонкий
Turkic: *Keŋe-
Mongolian: *köŋgen
Tungus-Manchu: *xeńü-
Korean: *kắnắr-
Japanese: *kǝ̀má-
Comments: ОСНЯ 1, 350, Цинциус 1984, 103. Mong. has secondary labialization (*köŋgen < *keńö-gen); depalatalization in Kor. is not quite clear. Otherwise correspondences are regular.
Proto-Altaic: *k`éńo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of blade
Russian meaning: вид лезвия
Mongolian: *kaji-
Tungus-Manchu: *xeńe
Korean: *kằńắi
Japanese: *káná-i
Comments: One should also note Mong. qajiči 'scissors' - possibly a contamination of this root with *kăp`è q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`eŋa
Meaning: spacious, free
Russian meaning: обширный, свободный
Mongolian: *kaŋka-
Tungus-Manchu: *xeŋ-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss, perhaps an expressive variant of *kĕ̀ŋi q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`eŋV
Meaning: to be burnt
Russian meaning: подгорать
Mongolian: *keŋsi-
Tungus-Manchu: *xeŋ(-gu-)
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 110-111, АПиПЯЯ 11, 286. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`èpà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: husk, shell
Russian meaning: шелуха, скорлупа
Turkic: *kebü-
Mongolian: *kebe
Japanese: *kàpì
Comments: Turk. > WMong. kebeg, whence Mongor kawaG (TMN 3, 580, Щербак 1997, 127). One of several similar PA roots (see *k`ā́p`a, *k`i̯ā̀bu, *gébó, *kìp`é).
Proto-Altaic: *k`épà ( ~ -b-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: side
Russian meaning: сторона, бок
Turkic: *Kaptal
Mongolian: *kabta-su
Tungus-Manchu: *xebu-, *xebte
Japanese: *kápá
Comments: KW 167. In Mong., due to secondary contaminations, the root is somewhat hard to distinguish from *k`ap`V `press, grasp' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`èpù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to change, price
Russian meaning: цена, долг
Turkic: *Kẹbi-ĺč-
Mongolian: *kubil-
Korean: *káps
Japanese: *kupua-
Comments: Cf. *k`ápa (with a possibility of mergers).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĕ̀p`è
Meaning: to dry out, become fragile; to break
Russian meaning: высыхать, становиться хрупким; ломать(ся)
Turkic: *kep(i)-
Mongolian: *kewü-
Tungus-Manchu: *xep-
Japanese: *kǝ̀pǝ̀-
Comments: Cf. *kăpi (with possible contaminations).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĕ̀p`ó
Meaning: to become wet, sprinkle, overflow
Russian meaning: мокнуть, литься
Mongolian: *kajila-
Tungus-Manchu: *xep-
Japanese: *kǝ̀mpǝ̀ra-
Comments: In Mong. secondary contaminations with *kajira- 'burn, roast' were possible.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ep`orV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: curved bone
Russian meaning: кривая кость
Turkic: *KApur-
Mongolian: *kabir-
Tungus-Manchu: *xebti-
Korean: *kùpɨ̀rǝ̀ŋ
Japanese: *kǝ̀m(p)ùrá (~-ua-)
Comments: Turk. forms may be < Mong. Note that the TM forms have nothing to do with Mong. ebčeɣün 'breast bone', despite Doerfer MT 20, Rozycki 65. The word probably had the original meaning 'rib', preserved in Western languages; the Korean and Japanese forms cannot be kept apart, but they deserve special comment: in both languages the root was naturally influenced by the reflexes of *kŏp`é 'bend' (q. v.); the Japanese form is also aberrant accentologically, shows rather *-m- than *-p- - and may in fact be a merger of the present root with PA *k`i̯ome 'marrow'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`éŕà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bark
Russian meaning: кора
Turkic: *Kaŕ, *Kaŕ-dɨŕ
Mongolian: *kajir(a)-
Tungus-Manchu: *xerekte
Japanese: *kárà
Comments: Miller 1975, 157-72, 1985, 151, АПиПЯЯ 38, 80, 285, Лексика 107. The Mong. word belongs here with high probability, although medial -j- is not quite clear: the form is perhaps a dissimilation < *kari-ra- (a similar process *-lVl- > -jVl- is widely spread).
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