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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`àp`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of vessel, box
Russian meaning: вид сосуда, ящик
Turkic: *Kapɨrčak, *Kapsak
Mongolian: *kaɣurčag, *kajirčag
Tungus-Manchu: *xapsa
Japanese: *kàpì
Comments: Владимирцов 206, Tekin 1979, 127. Despite a widespread point of view (see e.g. ЭСТЯ 5, 277), Mong. can hardly be < Turk. The root (especially in the Turk.-Mong. area) is liable to mergers with *k`i̯ubu 'coffin' and *k`ăp`ù 'barrier' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ăp`ù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: barrier
Russian meaning: перегородка
Turkic: *Kap-
Mongolian: *kaɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *xapki-
Japanese: *kupai
Comments: EAS 89-90, Владимирцов 208, ОСНЯ 1, 337, Цинциус 1984, 85. Mong. qaɣa- is not < Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 133. See also notes to PA *kábó.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ap`u
Meaning: a stinging insect
Russian meaning: кусающее насекомое
Turkic: *KApuŋ (?)
Mongolian: *kubilǯagana
Tungus-Manchu: *xapina(bu)
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 85, Дыбо 9. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ap`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to press, grasp
Russian meaning: хватать, держать
Turkic: *Kap-
Mongolian: *kab-
Tungus-Manchu: *xap-ki-
Comments: KW 167, Poppe 43, ОСНЯ 1, 315, АПиПЯЯ 289 (but the Jpn. form should be kept separate, see *k`ápa). A Western isogloss. The root is expressive and tends to contaminate with *kăp`è 'to squeeze, pinch' (q. v.), as well as with *k`épà `side' (in Mong.: 'to grasp' > 'press' > 'flatten, flat'), but nevertheless reconstructable for PA (despite Doerfer's doubts in TMN 3, 374); borrowing in Mong. < Turk. is quite improbable, despite Щербак 1997, 133.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ăra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: tide, ebb-tide, flood
Russian meaning: отлив, прилив, поток
Turkic: *KAr-
Mongolian: *kargi-
Tungus-Manchu: *xarba
Japanese: *kátà
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 86.
Proto-Altaic: *k`aŕa ( ~ -u, -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to scrape, grind, bite
Russian meaning: скрести, молоть, кусать
Turkic: *Kaŕ-
Mongolian: *karu-
Tungus-Manchu: *xar-kü-
Korean: *kār-
Comments: EAS 46, 111, KW 169, Цинциус 1984, 87. Cf. Old Koguryo *kaš 'plough' (thus in Miller 1979, 13; Lee has *kal; the isolated Manchu χalχan 'ploughshare' may be < Kor.).
Proto-Altaic: *k`áru
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of cloth
Russian meaning: вид ткани
Turkic: *KArs
Mongolian: *kormu-sun
Tungus-Manchu: *xara-musa
Korean: *kòró
Comments: In Mong. cf. also qorgaj 'brocade' ( > Chag. qurgaj id.), which, however, may be alternatively compared with PT *kürk 'fur, fur coat' (ЭСТЯ 5, 148-149).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ắsi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut; piece
Russian meaning: отрезать; кусок
Turkic: *kes-
Mongolian: *kasu-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)asu-
Korean: *kàsk- / kǝ̀sk-
Japanese: *kínsú
Comments: SKE 103 (Turk.-Kor.; despite TMN 3, 596, Kor. kǝsk- is not a "teleologischer Sternchenform"). Cf. also Nan. (Bik.) kesi- 'to cut out' - with quite inexplicable k- (a borrowing?). Reasons for prenasalization in Jpn. are unclear (perhaps a suffixed form like *k`ắsi-gu-n is reflected).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ăsi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: leash, trap, net
Russian meaning: привязь, ловушка, сеть
Turkic: *kes-
Tungus-Manchu: *xasu-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ásV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thorn, thorny tree
Russian meaning: колючка, колючее дерево
Tungus-Manchu: *xasī-kta
Korean: *kàsắi
Comments: A Tung.-Kor. isogloss; cf. also Bur. xasuuri, xasuurgana, xasuurha(n) 'fir-tree' ( < TM?).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ā́č`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of vessel
Russian meaning: вид сосуда
Turkic: *Kāča
Tungus-Manchu: *xaču-kan
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ā̀no
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: match, other side
Russian meaning: подходящий, пара, другая сторона
Turkic: *Kon-
Mongolian: *kani
Tungus-Manchu: *xān-gi-
Japanese: *kànàp-
Comments: Cf. *kā́na.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ā́pri
Meaning: fan, bellows
Russian meaning: веер, меха
Turkic: *kȫrü-
Mongolian: *keɣürge
Tungus-Manchu: *xarpu-
Korean: *kūr-
Comments: EAS 147, KW 243, Poppe 110 (but Kor. kurǝk 'small sack' is derived < kur- 'roll, wrap' and does not belong here). Despite Щербак 1977, 128, the Mong. form is hard to explain as a Turkic loanword. Irregular labialization in Turk. is probably caused by the simplification of the cluster with labial -b-.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ā́p`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bark, skin
Russian meaning: кора, кожа
Turkic: *Kāpuk
Mongolian: *kawda-
Tungus-Manchu: *xabda(-nsa)
Korean: *kàph- / *kǝ̀ph-
Japanese: *kapa
Comments: Martin 225, KW 201, Владимирцов 255, АПиПЯЯ 15, 38-39, 67, 92, 274, Лексика 107. Regular except for tone variation in Japanese, possibly due to interaction of several similar PA roots (see *gébó, *k`èpà, *k`i̯ā̀bu, *kìp`é).
Proto-Altaic: *k`āp`a ( ~ -i, -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bladder, film
Russian meaning: пузырь, пленка
Turkic: *Kāp
Mongolian: *kabičak
Tungus-Manchu: *xap-
Korean: *kapo
Comments: One of several similar roots, actively interacting with each other - see notes to *k[ā]p`á 'to cover'. Mong. *kabi-čak 'groin' is a result of secondary semantic development, probably < *'scrotum' or 'hymen' (cf. the meanings in Turkic).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ā̀re
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: edge
Russian meaning: край
Turkic: *Kɨr
Mongolian: *kira
Tungus-Manchu: *xāri-
Comments: EAS 144, KW 232, Poppe 114, Дыбо 12, Лексика 96, TMN 3, 568, ЭСТЯ 6, 226. A Western isogloss; in Turkic contaminating with the reflex of *giru q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ā́sa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: place between limbs
Russian meaning: место между конечностей
Turkic: *Kạ̄sɨk
Mongolian: *kasa
Tungus-Manchu: *xasa-kī
Korean: *kàsằm
Comments: Closed *ạ̄ in Turkic is not clear.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ébá
Meaning: corpse
Russian meaning: труп
Turkic: *gEbre
Mongolian: *keɣür
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)eburen
Japanese: *kámpánái
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 124. In Turkic the root is preserved basically in Oghuz languages; it obviously obtained initial *g- (*k- would be normally expected) under the double influence of *gēp- 'to swell (of belly)' and *gebre- 'fragile'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ébà
Meaning: river, bay
Russian meaning: река, залив
Tungus-Manchu: *xebe
Korean: *kái ( < *kabi)
Japanese: *kápà
Comments: Martin 250 (Kor.-Jpn.). An Eastern isogloss. The irregular high tone in MKor. may be due to contraction after the loss of *-b-. Cf. OT (MK Ganǯaki) kevli 'the mouth of a canal' (EDT 689).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĕdò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wind, fog
Russian meaning: ветер, туман
Turkic: *Kad
Mongolian: *küdeŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *xedün
Japanese: *kǝti (~ -ua-)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 289, Дыбо 11.
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