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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *bási
Meaning: payment, loan
Russian meaning: плата, заем
Turkic: *basɨg
Tungus-Manchu: *basa-
Korean: *pskūi'í-, pskú-
Japanese: *písák-
Comments: ТМС 1, 76 (TM-Turk.). Korean has a usual vowel loss between a stop and a fricative (*psku- < *pis(i)-ku or *pǝs(i)-ku). Note the velar suffixation in Turkic, Korean and Jpn.
Proto-Altaic: *bašo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to run, drive
Russian meaning: бежать, гнать
Mongolian: *bisi-ɣu, *busi-ɣu
Tungus-Manchu: *baša-
Japanese: *basi-r-
Comments: Cf. *pasi.
Proto-Altaic: *bằtò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of plant (for making ropes)
Russian meaning: вид растения (для изготовления веревок)
Turkic: *buta-
Tungus-Manchu: *batu-kin
Japanese: *bàtà
Comments: The root evidently denoted some k. of plant used for making ropes or yarn. Note however that the Turkic reflex is poorly attested and not quite reliable; in PTM a reconstruction *bartu-kin is also possible (and perhaps preferable). The PA form should thus perhaps be changed to *bằrtò - a Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *bằt`í
Meaning: dirt
Russian meaning: грязь
Turkic: *bat-
Mongolian: *bat-ga
Tungus-Manchu: *batu-n
Korean: *ptắi
Japanese: *pìntì
Comments: Whitman 1985, 141, 181, 213. Korean has a usual reduction: *ptắi < *pitắi.
Proto-Altaic: *bằǯá
Meaning: early
Russian meaning: рано, ранний
Turkic: *bAja
Tungus-Manchu: *baǯi-
Japanese: *pàjá-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 77, Дыбо 11, Лексика 83-84. PJ has an irregular devoicing here (or should one think about a secondary assimilative voicing *baǯi < *paǯi in PTM? In that case PA *pàǯa should be reconstructed).
Proto-Altaic: *bā́
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bind
Russian meaning: связывать
Turkic: *b(i)ā-
Tungus-Manchu: *ba-
Korean: *pa
Japanese: *bǝ́
Comments: EAS 57, SKE 179, Martin 228, ОСНЯ 1, 172, АПиПЯЯ 68. One of the few common Altaic monosyllabic roots. Mong. *baɣu- 'to bind' is probably < Turk. (Щербак 1997, 103). Doerfer's (TMN 2, 254) criticism is unacceptable ("unklar, da kor. Nominalstamm, tü. Verbalstamm").
Proto-Altaic: *bā́č`V ( ~ *p-, -č-)
Meaning: sister
Russian meaning: сестра
Turkic: *bāča-
Mongolian: *bača-gan
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Manchu baša 'wife's younger sister' is isolated and most probably < Mong. (see ТМС 78, Rozycki 26).
Proto-Altaic: *bā̀dì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: face, colour
Russian meaning: лицо, цвет
Turkic: *bEd-le
Tungus-Manchu: *bāda
Japanese: *pítápi ( / *pìtàpi)
Comments: Contaminations were possible: cf. *pédá, *pắdà.
Proto-Altaic: *bāku ( ~ -k`-)
Meaning: small cattle
Russian meaning: мелкий скот
Turkic: *bākana
Mongolian: *bog
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Some Turkic forms meaning 'lamb, baby' may actually also continue PA *bèka q. v. Cf. also Evk. (Titov) baxana 'he-goat' ( < unattested Yak.?).
Proto-Altaic: *bā̀k`a ( ~ -k-)
Meaning: to slide, sweep
Russian meaning: скользить, мести
Tungus-Manchu: *bāKa- / *bāKu-
Japanese: *pàk-
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *bā̀k`ù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a sharp instrument
Russian meaning: острое орудие, инструмент
Turkic: *bokursɨ
Mongolian: *baki
Tungus-Manchu: *bāgba
Japanese: *pukusi
Comments: PT *bokursɨ probably < *bakursɨ (with a vowel narrowing in the first syllable of a trisyllabic word); PTM *bāgba < *bāk-ba through assimilation. Note a remarkable similarity of the Turkic and Japanese derivation. Cf. other similar roots: *p`i̯ùgV, *pŏ̀k`è, *p`ū̀ge, *p`àgò.
Proto-Altaic: *bāla
Meaning: child, young
Russian meaning: ребенок, молодой
Turkic: *bāla, *bāldɨŕ
Mongolian: *balčir
Tungus-Manchu: *baldi-
Japanese: *bàràpa(i)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 289. Jpn. low tone (or Turkic length) is irregular. The Western languages all reflect a common derivative *bāl(a)-tV.
Proto-Altaic: *bā́ra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: goods, to possess, earn
Russian meaning: имущество, обладать, зарабатывать
Turkic: *bār
Mongolian: *bari-
Tungus-Manchu: *bara-
Korean: *pǝ̄r-
Comments: KW 38, VEWT 62, ТМС 1,73, АПиПЯЯ 287, Лексика 326-327; ОСНЯ 1, 175, 176. Doerfer (MT 239) tries to argue ("Die Quantitätsverhältnisse weichen ganz ab"), but the phonetic match is quite regular (Turk. long : TM short).
Proto-Altaic: *bāŕa ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to rejoice, be proud
Russian meaning: радоваться, гордиться
Turkic: *bAŕ-
Mongolian: *bar-da-
Tungus-Manchu: *bāra-či-
Japanese: *báráp-
Comments: Not quite secure, because of tone incongruence. Jpn. could have merged the roots *bāŕa 'rejoice' and *bĕŕa 'peace'.
Proto-Altaic: *bā̀rì
Meaning: right, straight, direct
Russian meaning: правый, прямой
Turkic: *bEr-
Mongolian: *baraɣun
Tungus-Manchu: *bāru
Korean: *pàrằ-
Japanese: *pìtà
Comments: EAS 57, SKE 191, Poppe 21. "Verbal" low tone in Korean. Doerfer (TMN 1, 207) attempts to dismantle Ramstedt's comparison (Tung.-Kor.-Mong.) by preferring Ramstedt's own earlier (KW 35) derivation of Mong. baraɣun 'right; West' < bara- 'to end' - which is evidently much weaker semantically.
Proto-Altaic: *bā̀ri
Meaning: a k. of cloth
Russian meaning: вид ткани
Turkic: *bẹr
Mongolian: *baraɣa
Tungus-Manchu: *bārga-
Korean: *pār
Comments: Mongolian and TM reflect a suffixed form *bā̀ri-ga.
Proto-Altaic: *bĕ́
Meaning: bait
Russian meaning: приманка, наживка
Turkic: *beŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *be
Japanese: *bái ( ~ biá)
Comments: Miller 1985a, 78. An interesting monosyllabic root (TM evidence indicates that Turk. -ŋ is suffixed). {Cf. PAN *baŋi 'bait'}
Proto-Altaic: *bĕ̀dù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thick, large
Russian meaning: толстый, крупный
Turkic: *bEdü-k
Mongolian: *bediɣün, *büdüɣün
Tungus-Manchu: *burgu-
Korean: *pɨ̀rɨ̀-
Japanese: *pùtuà-
Comments: Gombocz 1905, KW 66, Poppe 53 (Turk.-Mong.), Martin 243-244, АПиПЯЯ 16, 68, 72, 280, Дыбо 12. Verbal low tone in Kor. Doerfer's (TMN 1, 235; 4, 275) criticism of the Turk.-Mong. match ("lautgesetzlich nicht vergleichbar;...passen im Vokalismus nicht...") is incorrect, because *-e- is well reconstructable for Proto-Mongolian. PTM *burgu is a contraction < *bedu-rgu (a similar phonetic development cf. in PTM *xürgü 'tail' < *k`i̯udo-rgV). In Kor. one would expect *pùrɨ̀-; the attested pɨ̀rɨ̀- is an obvious result of vocalic assimilation.
Proto-Altaic: *begV
Meaning: a k. of ferment
Russian meaning: закваска, вид фермента
Turkic: *bEgni
Mongolian: *beɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *bege
Comments: A Western isogloss; not quite reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *bĕ̀je
Meaning: man; self, body
Russian meaning: человек; сам, тело
Mongolian: *beje
Tungus-Manchu: *beje
Japanese: *bǝ̀
Comments: EAS 57, 98, KW 47, Владимирцов 261, Poppe 66, АПиПЯЯ 79, 105, 276.
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