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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`ada
Meaning: side, to turn
Russian meaning: сторона, поворачивать(ся)
Turkic: *KAdɨr-
Mongolian: *kadawra-
Tungus-Manchu: *xadaga-
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 80-81. A Western isogloss. On a possible Jpn. reflex see under *kéč`à.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ádí(-rV)
Meaning: to scrape off, scraper, tool for processing skins
Russian meaning: соскребать, скребок, инструмент для обработки шкур
Turkic: *KEdir-
Mongolian: *kederge
Tungus-Manchu: *xargan
Japanese: *káintúr-
Comments: PTM *xargan < *xadVrgan with a regular loss of -d- before -r-. Diphthong in Jpn. is not clear (*kíntúr- would be normally expected).
Proto-Altaic: *k`àd[ú]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be worn out, destroyed
Russian meaning: изнашиваться, разрушаться
Turkic: *KAdu-
Mongolian: *kidu-
Tungus-Manchu: *xadü-
Japanese: *kùntù-ra-
Comments: The root is rather difficult to distinguish from *k`et[o] q. v.; contaminations may explain partial vocalic irregularities. Mong. *kidu- is usually compared with Turk. *Kɨd- 'to destroy' (thus KW 244, VEWT 261, TMN 1, 487-488), but this form probably does not exist: in OT (8th c.) there is a dubious Hap. leg. qɨdmaz 'did not spare (?)', but all other sources (starting with MK) have only *Kɨj- and its reflexes (see EDT 595) - which is quite a different root, see *gijo.
Proto-Altaic: *k`a(j)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: who, interrogative pronoun
Russian meaning: кто, вопросительное местоимение
Turkic: *kem, *Ka-
Mongolian: *ken, *ka-
Tungus-Manchu: *xia (*xai)
Korean: *ka
Japanese: *ka
Comments: EAS 46, 47, 140, KW 225, Цинциус 1984, 75-76, АПиПЯЯ 41-42, 285. The TM form, despite Doerfer MT 27, Rozycki 222 has nothing to do with Mong. *ja- q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ắka
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to break, tear off
Russian meaning: отламывать, отдирать
Turkic: *KAk-
Mongolian: *kaka- / *kaga-
Tungus-Manchu: *xak-
Japanese: *kák-
Comments: A possible derivative is PA *k`akt`o 'castrated animal' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`akt`o
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a large domestic animal
Russian meaning: большое домашнее животное
Turkic: *Kotuŕ
Tungus-Manchu: *xakta-
Japanese: *kǝ̀tǝ̀pì
Comments: If the original meaning is 'a castrated animal' (as in TM), the stem may be a derivative of PA *k`ắka 'to break, tear off' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ằkú
Meaning: doll
Russian meaning: кукла
Turkic: *KAgur
Tungus-Manchu: *xaku-kan (/*k-)
Korean: *koāŋ
Japanese: *kùnkù-tú
Comments: Дыбо 15. Cf. Khalkha xǖxeldej 'doll' (a contamination with xǖxe-n 'child, girl'). One should also mention WMong. qoduɣu-čin 'clown; mask': this may be a metathesis < *kogu-du- ( = PJ *kùnkùtú) and the form may actually shed light on the mysterious Karakh. qoδurčuk (quite probably < *kog-du-rču-k = WMong. qoduɣu-čin). {Cf. PE *kǝɣina- 'face'}.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ala ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wait, be late
Russian meaning: ждать, опаздывать
Turkic: *Kal-
Mongolian: *kala
Tungus-Manchu: *xalā-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ale
Meaning: snow, snow-flakes
Russian meaning: снег, снежинки
Turkic: *Kɨla-gu
Mongolian: *kilaɣa
Tungus-Manchu: *xalu-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ăĺi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: napless skin, membrane
Russian meaning: шкура без ворса, мездра
Turkic: *keĺ
Mongolian: *kali-sun
Tungus-Manchu: *xalukta
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 82. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ằĺo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: reed, a k. of grass
Russian meaning: тростник, вид травы
Turkic: *KAĺak
Mongolian: *kal-
Tungus-Manchu: *xalī-
Korean: *kắr
Comments: EAS 110.
Proto-Altaic: *k`alo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: girth, tug
Russian meaning: лямка, подпруга, путы
Turkic: *Kolaŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *xala-
Korean: *koraŋ
Comments: An interesting common Altaic cultural term. PT and Korean reflect the common derivative *k`alo-ŋV.
Proto-Altaic: *k`alVbV
Meaning: wild garlic, leek
Russian meaning: черемша
Turkic: *KAlba
Mongolian: *kalijar
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Cf. perhaps some other plant names: Oyr., Tuva kɨlbɨš 'бадан широколистный'; perhaps TM *xul- > Evk. uli 'толокнянка', xuletũ 'назв. растения с целебным корнем'.
Proto-Altaic: *k`àmo
Meaning: to help, easy
Russian meaning: помогать, легкий
Turkic: *kömek
Mongolian: *kim-da
Korean: *kòmá-b-
Japanese: *kàmàp-
Comments: Turk. *kömek instead of the expected *komak under the influence of the borrowed ömük 'help' (see *i̯umu).
Proto-Altaic: *k`amo
Meaning: dung, faeces
Russian meaning: помет, испражнения
Turkic: *Kom-
Mongolian: *komu-
Tungus-Manchu: *[x]amū-
Comments: A Western isogloss. PM *komu-gal < *kamu-gal, with a frequent rounding before -u- in a polysyllabic form.
Proto-Altaic: *k`aŋa
Meaning: hair, long hair
Russian meaning: волосы, длинные волосы
Mongolian: *koŋgurčag
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)aŋulī
Korean: *kǝ̀'úč
Japanese: *kàmì
Comments: Irregular low tone in MKor. (possibly due to contraction). Mong. *koŋgurčag is a result of frequent labial attraction ( < *kaŋgurčag).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ápa
Meaning: to buy, pay back
Russian meaning: покупать, платить
Tungus-Manchu: *xab-
Korean: *kàphɨ́-
Japanese: *káp-
Comments: Martin 227. An Eastern isogloss. Cf. *k`èpu.
Proto-Altaic: *k`àpe
Meaning: strong, power; to swell
Russian meaning: сильный, сила; распухать
Mongolian: *kab-
Tungus-Manchu: *xabu-l-
Japanese: *kǝ̀pà-
Comments: KW 158, Цинциус 1984, 79-80. The meaning "swell" is probably secondary, under the influence of *gi̯ṓp`e q. v. (in Mong. possibly also under the influence of Turk. *Kāp- < *gi̯ṓp`e); cf. also *kŏp`é.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ăpra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to scrape, rasp, plane
Russian meaning: скрести, строгать
Turkic: *K(i)arba-
Mongolian: *kawra-
Tungus-Manchu: *xarpu- / *xarpi-
Comments: Poppe 17, 82. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`apV
Meaning: to bring close, rub against
Russian meaning: подносить, прикасаться, тереть
Turkic: *Kab-
Mongolian: *kabi
Tungus-Manchu: *xab-
Comments: KW 178, 179, Цинциус 1984, 77-78. A Western isogloss.
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