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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ăbu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: interior of the mouth
Russian meaning: внутренность рта
Turkic: *Ăburt
Mongolian: *owči
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)abu-ǯan-
Comments: KW 292, Лексика 226. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ăčV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: elder relative, ancestor
Russian meaning: старший родственник, предок
Turkic: *ăčaj / *ĕčej
Tungus-Manchu: *asī
Korean: *àčă-
Comments: An expressive kinship "nursery" word with the typical structure *VCV; the root must have denoted some elder relative, both male and female. Deriving TM *asī from a Chinese (ТМС 1,55) or Sino-Korean (SKE 15) source is quite impossible. The Mongolian reflexes are problematic: Mong. eǯei 'mother, elder sister' (whence Yak. eǯīj, Dolg. eǯij, see Кал. V 27, Stachowski 43) is probably < Turkic.; Mong. ečige 'father' reflects rather PA *ĕ́t`è q. v. One should, however, note an isolated Dagur form ačā 'father' (Тод. Даг. 122), whence certainly Solon ača id. and possibly Evk. (Vit.) ači 'ancestor' (ТМС 1, 59).
Proto-Altaic: *áč`u
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to doubt
Russian meaning: сомневаться
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)aču-
Korean: *ǝ̄ču-b-
Japanese: *útákáp-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss; not quite certain because of sparse attestation in TM and Korean.
Proto-Altaic: *ădV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to fit, equal, similar
Russian meaning: подходить, равный, похожий
Turkic: *ădaĺ
Mongolian: *adali
Tungus-Manchu: *ada-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. several similar roots: *idV 'to follow, lead'; *i̯ude 'to imitate, simulate', with a natural tendency towards contamination.
Proto-Altaic: *agà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: rain; air
Russian meaning: дождь; воздух
Mongolian: *agaɣar
Tungus-Manchu: *aga
Korean: *ak-su
Japanese: *àkî
Comments: Lee 1958, 119 (Kor.-TM), АПиПЯЯ 291, ТМС 1, 11. The TM form is not borrow < Mong., pace Rozycki 11. *agaɣar (cf. the length in all dialects) < *aɣa-ɣar, with regular dissimilation. The Jpn. form may be attributed here if it originally meant "rainy season" (cf. "rain, thunder" in TM); autumn is not so rainy in present-day Japan, but it must have been different in the original homeland.
Proto-Altaic: *ágà ( ~ e-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mouth, to open mouth
Russian meaning: рот, открывать рот
Turkic: *Agɨŕ
Mongolian: *ag-
Korean: *hà-
Japanese: *ákúp-
Comments: SKE 5, Martin 234, Колесникова 1972а, 77-78, АПиПЯЯ 80, 283 (confused with *ák`a), Лексика 225. Despite Poppe 95 Mong. aɣur 'steam, anger' hardly belongs here (see under *ap`i). The root should be distinguished from *ák`a, although they tend to be confused: thus, Mong. *ag 'crack' could quite possibly reflect *ák`a. Some phonetic comments: Mong. *aguji regularly < *aɣuji with velar fricative dissimilation; Korean has lost the first vowel in a long derivative (a rather frequent phenomenon).
Proto-Altaic: *àgŋa
Meaning: net; to spin, plait
Russian meaning: сеть; вязать, плести
Turkic: *āg
Mongolian: *aɣoga
Tungus-Manchu: *aŋ(g)a
Japanese: *àm-, *àmì
Comments: Лексика 419. The root has some irregularities (Jpn. tone does not correspond to Turkic length): there may have been some interaction with *ăŋu q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *ằgò
Meaning: trade
Russian meaning: торговля
Turkic: *Agɨ
Mongolian: *(h)ag-su-, *(h)aɣu-ra-
Japanese: *àkì
Comments: Владимирцов 319 (Turk.-Mong.). An interesting common Altaic economic term, denoting the barter process or barter objects.
Proto-Altaic: *agu-la
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: uninhabited place, wilderness
Russian meaning: незаселенное место, пустошь
Turkic: *aglak
Mongolian: *aɣula
Tungus-Manchu: *agulān
Comments: Poppe 58. A Western isogloss. May be derived from the root reflected in TM as *agī- 'to walk without a road', 'wilderness' (ТМС 1, 13; its borrowing from Mong. aɣui 'wide', suggested by Poppe 1972, 101, Doerfer MT 123, is highly dubious). Note that vowel length in PT *aglak is unknown; if the original meaning of the root was 'to nomadize', one is tempted to compare also PT *āgɨl 'settlement' (originally perhaps 'nomadic settlement'; see Лексика 492-493, 522-523, ЭСТЯ 1, 65-66, 83-85, TMN 2, 82-84, Stachowski 257), whence probably MMong., WMong. ajil id. ( > Evk. ail etc., see Doerfer MT 125). Not borrowed from Turkic, but rather genuine may also be WMong. ajimak 'a group of ajil's' (TMN 1, 184-185: Mong. > Khak., Tuva ajmaq (see also ЭСТЯ 1, 110), Man. ajman etc.).
Proto-Altaic: *aguŕV
Meaning: colostrum
Russian meaning: молозиво
Turkic: *ạguŕ
Mongolian: *uɣurag
Comments: KW 454, Владимирцов 196, Мудрак Дисс. 186. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss, but, despite TMN 2, 80-81, Щербак 1997, 95 hardly borrowed in Mong. < Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *ằjbo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: grass
Russian meaning: трава
Mongolian: *ebe-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)abü-
Japanese: *àwǝ̀-
Comments: *-j- should be reconstructed to account for Mong. e- and for Jpn. -w-. The semantic derivation *'grass' > 'green' is quite common.
Proto-Altaic: *aje ( ~ *ejo)
Meaning: to reach, come close
Russian meaning: достигать, подходить
Mongolian: *aji-su-
Japanese: *ǝ́jǝ́mp-
Comments: A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss. {? Cf. PE *aɣi-ʁ- 'to come'}
Proto-Altaic: *ăjV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: good, fitting
Russian meaning: хороший, подходящий
Turkic: *ăja-
Mongolian: *(h)aja
Tungus-Manchu: *aja, *aju-
Comments: KW 3, Владимирцов 282 (Turk.-Mong.), EAS 97, 139, Poppe 66 (with an unreliable Korean parallel), АПиПЯЯ 290, Дыбо 12. A Western isogloss. Because of a semantic difference, TM forms are hardly borrowed from Mong., despite Doerfer MT 46.
Proto-Altaic: *ăjVrV
Meaning: sour milk, melted fat
Russian meaning: кислое молоко, топленый жир
Turkic: *ajran
Mongolian: *ajirag
Tungus-Manchu: *ajara-
Comments: Владимирцов 283. Despite Doerfer TMN 2, 180, Щербак 1997, 96, hardly borrowed in Mong. < Turk. A Western isogloss; but cf. perhaps Kor. ari- 'bitter', Middle Jpn. era- 'rank, offensive'.
Proto-Altaic: *akt`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a castrated animal
Russian meaning: кастрированное животное
Turkic: *atan
Mongolian: *akta
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ák`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to open, opening
Russian meaning: открывать, отверстие
Korean: *àk-
Japanese: *áká-
Comments: Martin 238. A Kor.-Jpn. isogloss: in other languages (Turkic, Mongolian) the root has probably merged with *ága 'mouth, open mouth' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *ak`a-
Meaning: a k. of aquatic bird
Russian meaning: вид водоплавающей птицы
Turkic: *Akańa
Mongolian: *(h)akawna
Tungus-Manchu: *aKa
Comments: ТМС 1, 24. A Western isogloss. The TM languages reflect a compound *aKa-nīkü (with *nīkü 'duck' < PA *nī̀kV q. v.); the same compound in a somewhat distorted shape may be also present in the PT and PM forms.
Proto-Altaic: *ák`à ( ~ -k-,-o)
Meaning: dirt, filth
Russian meaning: грязь
Mongolian: *(h)ag
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)aK-
Japanese: *ákà
Comments: The root is not very widely represented, but seems reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *ắk`è
Meaning: to advance gradually, slowly
Russian meaning: продвигаться постепенно, медленно
Turkic: *(i)akuru-
Mongolian: *(h)aki-
Japanese: *ǝ́kúr(á)-
Comments: The Turk. and Jpn. forms reflect a derivative *ak`e-ru-.
Proto-Altaic: *ằk`ú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to dig, delve
Russian meaning: копать, долбить
Mongolian: *uku-
Tungus-Manchu: *axiri-
Japanese: *ùnkàt-
Comments: PJ *ùnkàt- and PTM *akiri- may reflect a PA derivative *ằk`ú-rV-.
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